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Ivana Kolčić. WHO definition of violence “The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against.

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Presentation on theme: "Ivana Kolčić. WHO definition of violence “The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ivana Kolčić

2 WHO definition of violence “The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation.”

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4 UN Secretary-General’s Report on Violence against Children (2006)  WHO estimated that almost 53,000 children were murdered worldwide in 2002  A survey from a wide range of countries found that % of school-aged children reported having been bullied, verbally or physically  WHO estimated that 150 million girls and 73 million boys under 18 were forced to have sex or experienced other forms of sexual violence during 2002 Child maltreatment - prevalence

5  Between 100 and 140 million girls and women in the world underwent some form of female genital mutilation/cutting. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and Sudan, 3 million girls and women are subjected to this practice every year  The International Labour Organisation (ILO) estimated that in 2004, 218 million children were involved in child labour, 126 million of whom were doing work that was dangerous.  The ILO also estimated that 5.7 million children were forced to work (forced and bonded labour), that 1.8 million children worked in prostitution and pornography, and that 1.2 million children were victims of trafficking Child maltreatment - prevalence UN Secretary-General’s Report on Violence against Children (2006)

6 Child maltreatment - prevalence  UK - a survey by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC; 2,275 children aged and 1,761 adults aged 18-24, 2009)  Severe maltreatment during childhood : 25.3% of children aged 18–24y 18.6 % of children aged 11–17y 5.9% of children under 11s _wdf84181.pdf

7 NSPCC  A decline in some forms of childhood abuse reported by young adults from 1998–9 to 2009:  Childhood experiences of being beaten up or hit over and over again at home, in school or in the community declined from 6.6% to 4.3% in 2009  Being slapped on the face, head or ears declined from 21.3% to 13.4%  Regular physical treatment/discipline declined from 10% to 2.8% in 2009  Coerced sexual acts under age 16 declined from 6.8% to 5%  Neglect - no significant change _wdf84181.pdf

8 Croatia  HBSC - Health Behaviour in School-aged Children project (WHO) – latest survey in 2009/10 in 43 countries  Children who communicate well with their mothers were less likely bullyed, and less violent to other children in age 11 and 13  Children of 13 ys who communicate well with their fathers were less likely to bully others  Children of 11 ys who communicate well with both parents were less likely to experience psychosomatic symptoms, were more satisfied with life, had greater success in school, felt that they were better accepted by peers

9 HBSC

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13 Where does violence take place?  The UN Violence Study found that children experience violence in five different settings or places: at home in school or other educational settings in institutions such as orphanages, children’s homes; in prisons or other detention centres in the workplace in the community

14 Child maltreatment - consequences  Mistreatment of children can ruin children's lives, and there is clear evidence that its effects do not always end when a child becomes an adult  Child maltreatment can lead to: Physical health problems (injuries,bruises and fractures) Learning problems Anxiety Depression Substance misuse Self destructive or antisocial behaviour (aggression or suicide attempt, more likely to do dangerous things like having sex at a very young age) Difficulties in forming or sustaining close relationships Difficulty sustaining employment Diminished parenting capacity

15 Child maltreatment  Try to identify: Risk factors Recognising (diagnosing) the problem Dealing with the problem of violence Preventive measures

16 Child maltreatment risk factors  parental or carer drug or alcohol abuse  parental or carer mental health  parental or carer socieconomic status  intra-familial violence or history of violent offending  previous child maltreatment in members of the family  known maltreatment of animals by the parent or carer  vulnerable and unsupported parents or carers  pre-existing disability in the child

17 The Council of Europe: Eliminating violence against children  Protection from violence should incorporate: The legal framework The policy framework The institutional framework Building a culture of respect for the rights of the child Child-friendly services and mechanisms Research and data collection International co-operation

18 UN Secretary-General’s Report on Violence against Children (2006) Overarching recommendations:  1. Strengthen national and local commitment and action  2. Prohibit all violence against children  3. Prioritize prevention  4. Promote non-violent values and awareness-raising  5. Enhance the capacity of all who work with and for children  6. Provide recovery and social reintegration services  7. Ensure participation of children  8. Create accessible and child-friendly reporting systems and services  9. Ensure accountability and end impunity  10. Address the gender dimension of violence against children  11. Develop and implement systematic national data collection and  research  12. Strengthen international commitment

19  NICE guidelines: What to do if you're worried a child is being abused (CG89), 2009 (http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/1 2183/44954/44954.pdf)

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