2Play Stages Solitary Play Solitary play is the earliest play stage a child masters. Playing without any regard for those around oneself. This kind of behavior is frequently observed in young children where they are engrossed in their own toys and do not have any interest in other children.Solitary activities are set up for one child to play at there own pace with toys they enjoy, with no demands of sharing with other children. A perfect example of this is a child sitting on there own mouthing a favorite toy.Solitary also consists of one on one (baby & carer) where your attention is focused on them and them only. Activities such are ‘pee a boo’ are a good example of one on one with children.
3Play stages Parallel Play Parallel play is where children are beginning to become curious of interacting with other children but they are still a little unsure about it. They will play alongside another child, whether it is in the sandpit, water play or block corner, but they rarely cooperate in a task or engage in dramatic play or formal games and they are learning to work with others. Children at this stage also tend to imitate or comment on what another child is doing.Examples of parallel play are:A child playing in home corner playing with kitchen utensils and another child is standing alongside absorbing what they are doing and the child watching may comment and say ‘my mummy does that in the kitchen’.Two children are playing at the sandpit but they are playing individually and one might say ‘why don’t you try doing this’.
4Play Stages Associative Play Associative play is where children play together in a similar activity with little organization or responsibility. They are playing the same game, but they are only working together for spasmodic periods of time.A perfect example of this form of play is where two or more children are playing in block corner with the blocks, building the same thing, talking with each other but not working together to create something.
5Play Stages Co-operative Play Co-operative play is where children are now starting to work together to play a game. They begin to communicate and discuss how they will create something together as a team and the staff are a perfect example for them to imitate team work or even just adults in general.Children begin to follow social rules, empathy, turn taking, sharing and taking responsibilities for guiding there own play.Two or more children are playing with blocks in block corner, building the same thing, talking with each other and working together to create something.
6Interacting Positively with Children Children are like sponges,They absorb everything you do and say.
7Permissive approach Passive carer; dominant child Children freely behave as they wishNo structure to day or planningNo limits or consequencesCarer may bargain with child to get desired resultConflict avoided
8Implications for children Children don’t have guidelines as to expectationsCarer inconsistencyChildren feel insecure and out of control
9Authoritarian Approach Dominant carer; passive childChildren are told what to do, how and whenNo choices are givenCompliance is forced, often involving threats, punishments, sarcasm and angerOften involves unrealistic expectationsIs consistent and same for all children
10Implications for children Children don’t know whyAnger for non-compliance indicates a lack of acceptance for who the child isHuge impacts on self esteemChildren copy this aggressive behaviour
11Democratic Approach Carer and child are equal partners Assertive but respectful; co-operative and fairFlexible limits and guidanceReasons for guidelines are explainedChildren are consulted and given choicesUses I messages and natural & logical consequencesNeed to understand development and know the children well
12Implications for children Children are guided toward autonomyChildren encouraged make decisions; given choicesChildren are aware of expectationsEmpowering children increases self esteemChildren learn self disciplineMust be suited to child’s level of development
13What approach do you take? PermissiveAuthoritarianDemocratic
14Element one: Communicate positively with children on an ongoing basis. Proximity to the childMake eye contactGet down to the child’s levelEnsure there are no physical obstructions
15Communication with babies and infants When and how we respond to an infant’s first cries, babbles and cooing will have an affect on the child’s overall language development (Trust vs. Mistrust. Erickson)Responding to these first sounds will encourage further responses from them – beginnings of two way conversationIt is the same for non-verbal communication, such as facial expressions (smiles, raised eyebrows) and gestures (touching or stroking the child). The infant responds to these by mirroring your actions and making cooing noises.Toddlers – usually independent and autonomous. Adult interaction should be on request by the child and/or where the adult deems it necessary (to positively guide behaviour or to act on a spontaneous learning experience)
16Communication with babies and infants. Children of this age often venture away from constant adult reassurance, however an adult needs to be close at hand to allow them to experience these independent feelingsBe sensitive to this stage of development and guide their use of language to solve problems and to meet their needs and interestsToddlers still revert to non-verbal ways to communicate frustration feelings by crying and using physical force. They may experience difficulty expressing themselves adequately with language alone.Therefore, non-verbal communication may be commonly used in conjunction with verbal communication
17Communication with children 3-6yrs of age. Children of this age have acquired skills to engage in turn-taking conversation and can sustain a conversation for an extended period of time.Children of this age love to discuss topics that appeal to their intrinsic interests, thoughts and opinionsThis age group is better at expressing themselvesThey have begun to imitate many “adult phrases” and sometimes inappropriate language is used
18Communication with children 3-6yrs of age. They are easily influenced and may imitate actions and language of their family members, friends and the mediaChildren expand their vocabulary through association and assimilation (i.e.. Repeating prior experiences and adapting what they have learned to new experiences)Allow children to become involved in decision making when setting up an inviting, stimulating and interesting environment. They will respond to the learning environment and will want to be involved. This all helps with language acquisition.
19Non-Verbal communication SmileWavePat on the headThumbs upSymbolBody languagePointingClappingWhat considerations do we need to take into account with the above actions in regards to age and culture?
20Ensuring Non gender, stereotypes or bias are not advocated. What are some examples of media and gender stereotype casting?What bias have you seen displayed by children in your care?How would you respond to a child saying to an African American child “I’m not sitting next to you, your dirty”.?
21Element two: Promote positive behaviour Positive guidance techniquesGive do’s rather then don’tsRedirectInvolve the child in what the outcome isReflective listeningProvide guidelines/rules and limitsConsistencyRemain positiveShort and clear communication (Relevant Key words)Allow children the opportunity to work through the situation.Place praise on the process and growth of the child/group (Contribution list)
22Age related behaviours HittingPushingPinchingPulling Discuss the different agesBiting that these behaviours maySnatching be more dominate and why?TantrumsSwearingExtending the truthThrowingSneaking
23Element two: Promote positive behaviour What are some positive rules and limits?Why cant we just say no?Why is choice important when interacting with children?Why do we need to follow children’s leads?
24In class assessment tasks Element oneTask TwoElement twoTask OneTask two
25Google for further research Basic Needs (Abraham Maslow)Moral stages of development (Erickson)Bonding and attachment (Mary Ainsworth)Play stages (Parten's Stages of Social Play)
26Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests What is Collaboration?Johnny approaches his teacher and asks to play with the water trough outside. His teach replies no it’s to cold today!Please present a collaborative response to Johnny request.
27Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests How can encourage collaboration?Open ended questionsShow real interestReflective listeningEncouraging opinionsRole modellingProviding the appropriate resources
28Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests How can we do this in everyday situations?WhenWho I don’t know how do you thinkWhy we can?What WhereHow
29Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests Active Listening what dose it look like?Effective communication, what is it?Let’s put effective communication and active listening to the test!Chinese whispers
30Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests When and what would we collaborate on with children?ActivitiesIndoor /outdoor playWhere they satWhere they had lunchWhat story they would likeProjectsSafety
31Element 3: Collaborate with children about their interests Reflect onTasks one and two
32Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differences Why is it important to discuss children’s likes and dislikes, and how do we use these as a resource to talk about differences?In small groups write down different ways for children to discuss their likes and dislikes.
33How can an environment encourage acceptance of others? Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differencesHow can an environment encourage acceptance of others?
34Why are all children different? Nature vs. Nurture Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differencesWhy are all children different?Nature vs. NurtureGenetics vs. EnvironmentSocio cultural aspectsLets debate
35In pairs discuss similarities and differences Element 4: Respect similarities and differences and encourage children to respect these differencesIn pairs discuss similarities and differencesPersonality Likes/dislikesAppearancesBackgroundFamilyCommunityFood likes/dislikeHobbies/interestIdentify where or why these developed/originated from
36Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process ChoiceAsking questionsWhoWhatWhyhowWhenReflection on past experiences Choose one of the points on the leftExploring and write how it would fosterScience the decision making process?Encouraging cause and effectEncouraging explorationOpen ended activitiesSelf help shelvesDiscussions
37Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process From the mystery box pick some resources and create an activity that involves problem solving.Document in groupsHow the activity encourages problem solvingWhat age group it would be suitable for and whyWhere the activity could lead toWhat prior knowledge and future knowledge could it relate to
38Create a play script and implement it Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making processHow would we do this in small groups, whole group, and individual discussion?Role play-In groups of 4Mum dad, baby, dogCreate a play script and implement itWhat did you have to work through?Roles, resources, context, turn taking, where to start and end…
39Element 5: Support children in learning about the decision making process Why would the following things affect you?Physical environmentequipmenttime available and In groups document onestaff ratio idea for each one.budgetspaceOHS