Presentation on theme: "The Crusades, Inquisition, Vikings and Black Plague were devastating to Western Christianity, while the internal battles over power, territory and authority."— Presentation transcript:
The Crusades, Inquisition, Vikings and Black Plague were devastating to Western Christianity, while the internal battles over power, territory and authority over secular powers brought the Church from its highest power at the beginning to its lowest power by the end of this period
Solidarity of a complex organization is maintained by fear and threat Suppression of heresy in Early Church (Arians), Dark Ages (Cathars or Albigensians), Medieval Ages (begins with the Waldensians) In 13 th century Pope Gregory IX assigns Dominican Order to eliminate heretics – lasted until the 19 th century! Medieval Inquisition ( ) Spanish Inquisition ( ) Portuguese Inquisition ( ) Roman Inquisition ( )
A 1578 handbook for inquisitors spelled out the purpose of inquisitorial penalties: “… for punishment does not take place primarily and per se for the correction and good of the person punished, but for the public good in order that others may become terrified and weaned away from the evils they would commit”, There were few rights, accused could not face accuser, no defense counsel, no appeals, torture could be used for cooperation – life and death sentences for non-cooperation
Initially the Inquisition was against the Hussites, Lutherans, Calvinists and Rosicrucians Spanish inquisition (1478) and Portuguese Inquisition (1536) operated under the royal authority of the King and Queen. Spain: estimates of 50,000 to 340,000 trials with 2% to 10% of the population being executed! Anti-semitism increased in the 13 th through 14 th century Many non-Catholics converted (100,000 to 200,000 Jews converted) -- called marranos (“pigs”) Muslims became main target from 1560 to 1571 – converts called moriscos (“secret Moors”) From 1550 to 1800 the primary targets were sects of Protestantism Galileo facing Roman inquisition
Francis of Assisi (5 th Crusade- 1220) boldly preached to sultan of Egypt, Malik-al-Kamil and was spared. Raymond Llull ( ) taught confrontational, debate format of witness to Muslim – stoned at 80. Matteo Ricci ( ) adapted Chinese culture – early contextualized missions Robert de Nobili ( ) extreme contextualized missions: became as a Sadhus Brahmin (Hindu monk) – his method rejected as being too syncretistic Francis before sultan
Francis Xavier ( ) missionary to India, Japan, then died going to China
On Sundays I assemble all the people, men and women, young and old, and get them to repeat the prayers in their language. They take much pleasure in doing so, and come to the meetings gladly…I give out the First Commandment, which they repeat, and then we all say together, “Jesus Christ, Son of God, grant us grace to love thee above all things.” When we have asked for this grace, we recite the Pater Noster [“Our Father”] together, and then cry with one accord, “Holy Mary, Mother of Jesus Christ, obtain for us grace from thy Son to enable us to keep the First Commandment.” Next we say Ave Maria [“Hail Mary”], and proceed in the same manner through each of the remaining nine Commandments. And just as we say twelve Paters and Aves in honor of the twelve articles of the Creed, so we say ten Paters and Aves in honor of the Ten Commandments, asking God to give us grace to keep them well” Refers to the repetition of the Lord’s Prayer and the “Hail Mary” of the rosary.
“Patronage” means support, financial aid and authority to evangelize Given only to emissaries from Spain and Portugal Used religion to assure submission to nation’s commercial interests Ships of Spanish and Portuguese fleets sailed with priests to conquer new markets Non-Catholics not permitted on ships
Scholasticism Schools in cathedrals and monasteries developed into Universities to explain God’s Word Greek philosophy, Aristotelian and deductive logic formed a priori Catholic theology (by logic alone) Logical proofs derived from syllogism (two truth statements followed by logical conclusion) Mysticism Pursuit to acquire certainty of salvation through spiritual experience or conscious awareness of God Seeking a sense of divine presence whatever the experience Can be ecstatic revelation, enlightenment, epiphany and visions Monasticism Place to seek the presence of God and learn skills for life
Fleeing Mongol onslaught they transport plagues with great caravans Constantinople Early 1347 Late 1347 Early 1348 Late 1348 Late Est. 50% of pop. killed by plague!
Waldensians (Peter Waldo ) Gave French the Bible in their language Lay preachers and duty to obey God, not men Rejected purgatory, efficacy of Mass and prayers for dead Most were massacred or killed by Inquisitions for 200 yrs John Wycliffe( ) – Lollards Popular professor of Oxford trained lay preachers Lollards believed that all people should have Bible in their language and it be the only authority in life Use of cell-groups to spread teaching
Jan Huss ( )– Hussites Influenced by Wycliffe’s writings Rector of large church in Prague Denounced abuses of Church and proclaimed Bible Practiced “utraquism” (Eucharist in both kinds) Taborites or Bohemian Brethren (radical Hussites) Persecuted Hussites met on Mt Tabor One group became militant; another group was pacifist (went underground) Crusades were led against Hussites ( )- Joan of Arc threatened to lead a crusade against them Followers formed the Moravian Church Brethren of the Common Life (14 th century) Mystical movement founded by Gerard Groote, educator, who had a religious experience then taught a simple devotion to Jesus He sought to reform the decadence of the clergy Formed monastery communities which taught “for the love of God alone” Martin Luther studied under the Brethren before going to the University of Erfurt At first elementary school, then added humanities, philosophy and theology.