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TheReformation The Reformation The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli Photo Credits Sacred DestinationsLucas Cranach Gertrude KanuLee Lai Stephen KompCharlotte.

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Presentation on theme: "TheReformation The Reformation The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli Photo Credits Sacred DestinationsLucas Cranach Gertrude KanuLee Lai Stephen KompCharlotte."— Presentation transcript:

1 TheReformation The Reformation The Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli Photo Credits Sacred DestinationsLucas Cranach Gertrude KanuLee Lai Stephen KompCharlotte Nordahl Mike ReedAlex Bepple Debra DindaR. Bean

2 Technically: Part of Holy Roman Empire Humanism made Switzerland key breeding ground for Reformation fever Three expressions of reformation emerged – Zwinglian : Ulrich Zwingli German-speaking cantons of north (esp. Zurich) – Calvinistic : John Calvin French speaking cantons in south (esp. Geneva) – Anabaptist : Grebel, Hubmaier, Manz, Stattler, etc. Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands The Unique Political-Religious Situation of Switzerland

3 Born to well-connected parents –Studied at humanistic Basel and Bern –Embraced humanistic approach to ad fontes Humanist door to evangelical conversion Huldrych (Ulrich) Zwingli ( ) Background

4 Parish priest at Glarus Pilgrim shrine at Einsiedeln –Reputation as outspoken preacher –Time of evangelical conversion Elected as people’s priest, Great Minster Church Zurich Zwingli -- Religious Career

5 Einseideln Basilica © Sacred Destinations Einseideln Abbey © Sacred Destinations

6 Grossmunster Zurich © Sacred Destinations Zwingli’s Church in Zurich

7 Grossmunster Zurich © Sacred Destinations Zwingli’s Church in Zurich

8 Lenten fast broken in Zwingli’s parish Hermeneutical Crisis – T-2 - Word has equal authority with Fathers / traditions as set by church councils, pope – T-1 - Word has final authority, as historically interpreted by Fathers, and church – T-0 - Word alone without context of historical interpretation (no exegetical history) City council defends Zwingli –Reformation practices promoted From Priesthood to Politics of Reform

9 First Zurich Disputation –“Sixty-seven Articles” Second Zurich Disputation –Council chose “Gradualism” Open breach with Rome –Council orders implementation of significant reforms –Zwingli’s influence finds expression in other free cities Basel / Bern / Strassburg The Public Disputations

10 Reformation Cities of the Swiss Confederation Schleitheim

11 Christian Civic Alliance (Protestants) Christian Union (counter-Protestant cantons) Peace of Kappel –Zwingli disrupts it, fatally wounded, then executed Zurich church reform by Heinrich Bullinger –Composed First Helvetic Confession Swiss Mosaic led to Civil Wars ( )

12 Upheld absolute authority of Bible –Nothing in religion unless approved by Scripture (no adiaphora considered) Accepted unconditional predestination –Of those rejecting gospel message Faith is essential ingredient in sacraments –Symbolic commemoration only Original sin is moral disease, but without bearing guilt –Infants saved w/o baptism Zwingli’s Doctrinal Contributions

13 TheReformation The Reformation The Radical Reformation From Blaurock to Menno Simons Photo Credits Sacred DestinationsLucas Cranach Gertrude KanuLee Lai Stephen KompCharlotte Nordahl Mike ReedAlex Bepple Debra DindaR. Bean

14 Gish’s Left Wing of the Reformation Evangelical RationalistsAnabaptists Revolutionaries Spiritualizers / Socialists Servetus Socinius Hubmaier Sattler Simmons Hoffman Rothmann Hutt Hutter transitioned into… Unitarianism Evangelical Mainstream ”Free Churches” Mennonites Apocalyptic Sects Communist Communities Diverse Expressions of Radical Reformers

15 Anabaptists were to Zwingli as Karlstadt was to Luther Felt Zwingli was false prophet Second Disputation in Zurich brought crisis to forefront Underlying issue: Church-State as co-terminus entities Separation of church and state was “Radical” and deadly for adherents Roots: Unrealized Agenda of Zwingli in Zurich

16 Crisis Point : Anabaptist reformers gather with Zwingli for public debate –Issue: Will the concept of infant baptism be rejected or not? Separation : Founding of the Swiss Brethren –Public baptisms begin on Jan 21, 1525 –Strong resistance to this movement from both Catholics and Protestants Emergence: Early Anabaptism (Swiss Brethren)

17 Many forced to flee from S. Germany, Switzerland, Moravia Territorial rulers first tried to suppress it with mandates against it Charles V ordered death penalty on basis of old Roman Laws against Donatists –Second Diet of Speyer, 1529 (where Protestio lodged) approved this imperial decree Dispersion: Under Intense Pressure

18 Augsburg: Martyrs Synod (1527) Strassburg: Swiss refugee community led by Michael Sattler Schleitheim: The Schleitheim Confession –Martyrdom of Sattler Expansion: German Anabaptist Centers

19 Hoffman came to Strassburg being hailed as “Apostle of the end” Jan Matthys assumed lead of chilliastic group Destructive implications of Tradition Zero –John Leyden takes over as new “King of Jerusalem” Bishop joins Lutheran forces and captures city Debacle damaged Anabaptist cause Confusion: Revolutionary Anabaptists at Münster

20 Recovery from tragedy of Münster associations Hutterites in Moravia –Jacob Hutter Mennonites in Netherlands / North Germany –Menno Simons: Father of Centrist Anabaptism Corrections: Gathering centric theological forces

21 Menno Simons Christoffel van Sichem. Engraving c This is considered to be the oldest portrait of Menno Simons, who died in Van Sichem was Roman Catholic; some people see in the brim of the hat the ears of a donkey, meant to ridicule Menno and his followers. Menno Simons Tom (Oliver Wendel) Shenk. Oil painting, Commissioned by Myron S. Augsburger for Eastern Mennonite Seminary in Harrisonburg, VA, where the picture is now hanging

22 Final authority of Bible as infallible rule of faith / practice Pure church comprised of confessing regenerate only Inclination to pacifism and a theology of martyrdom Emphasis on caring community / commonality of goods Lineal ancestor to significant groups today –Directly: Mennonites, Amish, Hutterites –Indirect: Quakers, Puritan Separatists, Baptists Believer’s only or “pure” church had ironic secularizing effect Contributions: Ideas influencing evangelicals

23 TheLaterReformation The Later Reformation The Reformed Tradition John Calvin Photo Credits Sacred DestinationsLucas Cranach Gertrude KanuLee Lai Stephen KompCharlotte Nordahl Mike ReedAlex Bepple Debra DindaR. Bean

24 French speaking territory in contested neighborhood of Lake Geneva Guillaume Farel carried out reform plans Geneva was contested territory

25 Early Years –Born near Paris –M.A. at University of Paris, then Law Degree Launching his career: –Influence of humanist reformers in France –“Sudden Conversion” –Inaugural address of Nicholas Cop –France becoming unsafe for reformers –Composed Institutes of the Christian Religion The road to Geneva –Long conversation with Farel to persuade Calvin Biographical Sketch – John Calvin (Jean Cauvin) ( )

26 Auditoire de Calvin © Sacred Destinations

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28 Calvin/Farel proposed a three-fold plan before Little Council for implementing reform –Adoption of Calvin’s catechism –Everyone to follow Creed written by Farel –Monthly administration of Lord’s Supper (fencing table) Strong opposition to Calvin’s plans –Standoff with officials on Easter Sunday, 1538 –Calvin expelled from Geneva Work of reform in Geneva:

29 Happy Strasburg years: Calvin pastors French refugees at Strassburg Writing career developed –French liturgy / translations of psalms / hymns –Second edition of the Institutes –Commentary on Romans –Reply to Sadoleto vindicating Protestant principles –The Short Treatise on the Lord’s Supper

30 Return to Geneva: Political reversal enabled reforming forces to recall Calvin –Returns with hesitation practically on his own terms Convinced city council to pass Ecclesiastical Ordinances “The Venerable Company” a consistory as key element in the system –For church administration, encouragement, and discipline of community

31 Life under the new “theocratic model” of Calvin’s Geneva Leaders embark on moral reclamation of city Growing opposition of “Libertines” –Trial of Servetus Calvin’s crowning work: Genevan Academy –Influential epicenter of Reformed theology –Headed up by Calvin’s successor in Geneva, Theodore Beza

32 Legacy of Calvin: Forefather of the Reformed Faith 1.Voluminous writings 2.Advancement in education 3.Geneva as model and refuge for reformers 4.Growth of democracy: representative principle in church and state 5.Growth of capitalism 6.Retardation of mission

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