Presentation on theme: "Suzanne Bricker NOAA National Ocean Service Joao Ferreira IMAR"— Presentation transcript:
1 Evaluation of shellfish aquaculture and nutrient removal and credit trading in Long Island Sound Suzanne Bricker NOAA National Ocean ServiceJoao Ferreira IMARKatharine Wellman Northern EconomicsGary Wikfors NOAA National Marine Fisheries ServiceMark Tedesco EPA Long Island Sound StudyJulie Rose NOAA National Marine Fisheries ServiceBob Rheault East Coast Shellfish Growers AssociationRobin Landeck Miller HydroQualPaul Mankiewicz The Gaia InstituteEstuarine & Coastal Sciences Association: ECSA47 SymposiumFigueira da Foz, PortugalSeptember 14-19, 2010
2 Long Island Sound: Background New YorkConnecticutSize: 3,259 km2Tide: 2 m in west, 1 m in eastResidence time: 2-3 monthsHighly developed watershedPopulation: 4.9 x 106 total, 1,508 people/km22/3 freshwater inflow from Connecticut RiverThe Long Island Sound Study names 4 major water quality issues being addressed by government agencies, environmental groups, universities and the private sector:Nutrients and hypoxia - eutrophicationToxic Contaminants and pollutionPathogensFloatable debris
3 EPA Regional Ecosystem Services Program– Eutrophication and shellfish aquaculture Two year project, EPA funded, focus on Long Island Sound and Great Bay/Piscataqua region;Research groups from NOAA, EPA, HydroQual Inc., Longline Environment Ltd., Northern Economics, Shellfish Environmental Services;Conduct a comparative study on the bioextraction potential of shellfish, and its contribution to ecosystem services;Species: Eastern oyster, Northern quahog, ribbed mussel;For Long Island Sound (major case study): combine watershed models, detailed water quality models (SWEM), EcoWin2000, FARM, and economic models.
4 LIS Eutrophication Impacts Loss of eelgrass from historic rangeHypoxiaSpecies shifts(Picture or explanation?)
5 NEEA/ASSETS Results: LIS Highly Eutrophic Since early 1990s:Nuisance/toxic blooms improvedMacroalgae improvedChl no changeSAV no changeDO worsenedBricker et al. 2007, Nutrient enrichment inthe nation`s estuaries, A decade of change. National Estuarine Europhication Assessment Update.
6 *Total Maximum Daily Load Potential Resolution of Nutrient issues: Long Island Sound TMDL* (Approved by EPA April 2001)In-basin Nitrogen Reduction Goal58.5% by 201410% reduction to urban and agricultural runoff59-64% reduction to point sourcesAllows “Trading” of nutrient creditsOut-of-basin ActionsOut of State Sources (10% reduction to runoff, 25% reduction to point sources)Atmospheric Deposition (Clean Air Act reductions)Alternatives to nutrient controlBiomass harvestingPeriodic Revision (Adaptive Management)Evaluation in 2008*Total Maximum Daily Load
7 December 3-4, 2009 at UConn Stamford Potential Resolution of Nutrient issues: nutrient bioextraction considered for LISLongtime nitrogen management focus has been point sources (i.e. wastewater treatment plant upgrades)Growing recognition that non-point source pollution is also a substantial (more difficult) problemNutrient bioextraction can also address legacy pollution in the water column and sedimentsInternational Workshop on Bioextractive Technologies for Nutrient RemediationDecember 3-4, 2009 at UConn Stamford
8 How does bioextraction work? Cultivation and harvest of shellfish and macroalgaeNutrients are taken up directly (seaweed) or indirectly (shellfish, via plankton, organic detritus)Removal of biomass removes nutrients from the ecosystemRemoval of 1ary eutrophication symptoms reduces 2ary symptoms by (i) improving water clarity, restoring SAV; (ii) limiting D.O. loss from decomposition of organic matterShellfish farmers can negotiate nutrient credits to offset loading fom land, and be included in the trading program
9 Harvest – Bottom Culture State Approved Restricted Prohibited Total Scope of shellfish aquaculture: American Oyster (Crassostrea virginica), Northern Quahog clam (Mercenaria mercenaria)Harvest – Bottom CultureShellfish lease area20 kTState Approved Restricted Prohibited Totalas % total area 103 acresNYCTNY/CT27 kTNYonlyApproved for CT includes conditionally approved, forNY Approved is represented by Certified and Restricted is represented by Seasonal rating.Prohibited (CT) and Uncertified (NY) are considered equal.Area which appears to be actually farmed is under 1% of approved areaOn the basis of a yield of 10 tonnes ha-1 (1 kg m-2), the reported harvest of ~17,000 tonnes (37 million lb) would correspond to 17 km2, i.e. ~4200 acres
10 The REServ approach Economic model Millennium Ecosystem Assessment FrameworkField measurementsFarm-scale modellingFARM modelCatchment modelSPARROW, Watershed Runoff ModellingSystem- and local-scale ecological modellingE2K, FARM, ASSETSSystem-scale ecological modellingSWEM, E2K, ASSETSTransport modelSWEMPublic participationIndividual growth models for cultivated speciesRibbed musselIn situ and lab experiments
11 Change in dissolved oxygen through the use of IMTA Preliminary simulations of biomass harvesting show substantial DO improvementsPhase 3 & 4 TMDL: N & Corg4.03.02.01.00.0With shellfishand seaweedsMinimum D.O (mg L-1)+4.0+2.00.0-2.0-4.0System-Wide Eutrophication model (SWEM)HydroQual, 2009.Model year simulation: 1988Delta min.D.O (mg L-1)Change in dissolved oxygen through the use of IMTA
12 Data Drivers for simulated farm Simulated farm location is within approved lease areasData for Station 09 for 2008Thanks to Matt Lyman of CTDEPSimulated farm location from CTDEP aquaculture bottom lease maps and CTDEP data for station 09 for drivers of FARM
13 Data Drivers for FARM model application Station 09 for 2008 TSS = PIM + POMPOM = algal POM + detrital POM
14 Preliminary FARM model results N removal is net, and equivalent to nutrient removal for about 13.5 thousand PEQ. About 1000 farms to remove total load, area would be less than 3%Total N load to LIS = 50 x103 t y-1
15 Summary and Conclusions Biomass harvesting –promising solution to nutrient issuescomplementary to land-based nutrient load reductionsprovides shellfish product, income for shellfish farmerscaveat: marine spatial planningSignificance to LIS nutrient budget not known but -45 tons N removed in one 10 hectare farm (PEQ 13,600)Shellfish cultivation in 3% LIS area would remove equivalent of present N loadIf significant, will shellfish farmers become part of the LIS nutrient trading program?Stay tunedTry the models yourself:FARMASSETS