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Unitarian Universalist History The Unitarians: 0 c.e. – 1638 c.e.

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Presentation on theme: "Unitarian Universalist History The Unitarians: 0 c.e. – 1638 c.e."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unitarian Universalist History The Unitarians: 0 c.e. – 1638 c.e.

2 Rise of Christianity  1 st thru 3 rd Century  Constant fighting  Small Christian sects with differing views  Persecution

3 Rise of Christianity Roman Empire in 325c.e.

4 Constantine the Great – c.e.  Rules from 306 to 337c.e.  Born and lives a Pagan  Issues “Edict of Milan” – 311 and 313c.e.  Issues Nicene Creed – 325c.e.  Dies a Christian

5 Nicene Creed – 325c.e.  First Council of Nicaea Purpose – to standardize Christianity Arius vs. Athanasius 318 out of 1,800 bishops come Nicene Creed issued after nearly a month of debate! Exile, banishment, and excommunication

6 Arius - 256–336c.e.  Alexandria, Egypt  Believed Christian theology was being too freely mixed with Greek pagan philosophy  Son =/= Father (God) John 14:28: "the Father is greater than I". And also Colossians 1:15: "the firstborn of all creation." John 14:28Colossians 1:15 True first-born son  Excommunicated (Palestine)  Poisoned

7 The Middle Ages – 5 th -15 th Centuries  Collapse of Western Roman Empire – 476c.e.  The Crusades – 1095c.e.  Black Death – 1347 and 1350c.e.  Joan of Arc – c.e.

8 Europe – 1300c.e.

9 A Tradition of Heresy  Heretic comes from the Greek word “hairesis”  Translation: “to personally select or choose”

10 Roman Catholic Church Burning of the Templars, 1314 John Badby burned in a barrel, 1410 Ramihrdus of Cambrai (1076 or 1077) (lynched) Peter of Bruys († 1130) (lynched) Gerard Segarelli († 1300) Maifreda da Pirovano († 1300) Andrea Saramiti († 1300) Fra Dolcino († 1307) (never tried by Catholic Church), Italy Sister Margherita († 1307), Italy Brother Longino († 1307), Italy Marguerite Porete († 1310) Botulf Botulfsson († 1311), the only known heretic executed in Sweden Jacques de Molay (1243–1314), burned after conviction by a tribunal under the control of King Philip IV of France, France Geoffroi de Charney († 1314), burned with Jacques de Molay above, France. Guilhèm Belibasta († 1321), last Cathar Francesco da Pistoia († 1337) Lorenzo Gherardi († 1337) Bartolomeo Greco († 1337) Bartolomeo da Bucciano († 1337) Antonio Bevilacqua († 1337) William Sawtre († 1401) John Badby († 1410) Jan Hus (1371–1415), impenitent/unrepentant heretic Jerome of Prague (1365–1416), relapsed heretic Joan of Arc at the stake, 1431 St. Joan of Arc (1412–1431), relapsed heretic, Rouen, France Thomas Bagley († 1431) Pavel Kravař († 1433) Girolamo Savonarola († 1498) Joshua Weißöck (1488–1498) Jean Vallière († 1523) Hendrik Voes († 1523), 1st martyr in the Seventeen Provinces Jan van Essen († 1523), 1st martyr in the Seventeen Provinces Jan de Bakker († 1525), 1st martyr in the Northern Netherlands Wendelmoet Claesdochter († 1527), 1st Dutch woman burned as heretic Michael Sattler († 1527) Patrick Hamilton († 1528), St Andrews, Scotland Balthasar Hubmaier (1485–1528), relapsed heretic George Blaurock (1491–1529) Hans Langegger († 1529) Giovanni Milanese († 1530) Richard Bayfield († 1531) James Bainham († 1532) John Frith (1503–1533), England William Tyndale (1490–1536) Jakob Hutter († 1536) Aefgen Listincx (d. 1538) Anneke Esaiasdochter (d. 1539) Francisco de San Roman († 1540) Robert Barnes († 1540), England Thomas Gerrard († 1540), England Giandomenico dell' Aquila († 1542) Maria van Beckum (d. 1544) Ursula van Beckum (d. 1544) George Wishart (1513–1546), St Andrews, Scotland Rogers' execution at Smithfield, 1555 John Rogers († 1555), London, England Canterbury Martyrs († 1555), England Laurence Saunders, (1519–1555), England Rowland Taylor († 1555), England John Hooper († 1555), England Robert Ferrar († 1555), Carmarthen, Wales Patrick Pakingham († 1555), Uxbridge, England Hugh Latimer (1485–1555), relapsed heretic, England Nicholas Ridley (1500–1555), England Bartolomeo Hector († 1555) Paolo Rappi († 1555) Vernon Giovanni († 1555) Labori Antonio († 1555) John Bradford († 1555), London, England Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556), relapsed heretic, England Stratford Martyrs († 1556), 11 men and 2 women, London, England Joan Waste (d. 1556), Derby, England Pomponio Angerio († 1556) Nicola Sartonio († 1557) Thomas von Imbroich († 1558) (beheaded) Fra Goffredo Varaglia († 1558) Gisberto di Milanuccio († 1558) Francesco Cartone († 1558) Antonio di Colella († 1559) Antonio Gesualdi († 1559) Giacomo Bonello († 1560) Mermetto Savoiardo († 1560) Dionigi di Cola († 1560) Gian Pascali di Cuneo († 1560) Bernardino Conte († 1560) Giorgio Olivetto († 1567) Luca di Faenza († 1568) Thomas Szük (1522–1568) Bartolomeo Bartoccio († 1569) Dirk Willems († 1569), Netherlands Fra Arnaldo di Santo Zeno († 1570) Alessandro di Giacomo († 1574) Benedetto Thomaria († 1574) Diego Lopez († 1583) Gabriello Henriquez († 1583) Borro of Arezzo († 1583) Ludovico Moro († 1583) Pietro Benato († 1585) Francesco Gambonelli († 1594) Marcantonio Valena († 1594) Giovanni Antonio da Verona († 1599) Fra Celestino († 1599) Giordano Bruno (1548–1600), Rome, Italy Maurizio Rinaldi († 1600) Bartolomeo Coppino († 1601) Edward Wightman († 1612), last person burned for heresy in England. Malin Matsdotter (1613–1676), for witchcraft, Sweden Kimpa Vita (1684–1706), Angola Maria Barbara Carillo (1625–1721), Madrid, Spain The book "Acts and Monuments" by John Foxe, commonly known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs lists many more than this. The Church in England Anne Askew (1521–1546) Joan Bocher († 1550) George van Parris († 1551) Matthew Hamont († 1579) John Lewes († 1583) Peter Cole († 1587) Francis Kett († 1589) Bartholomew Legate (1575–1612) Edward Wightman (1566–1612), relapsed heretic In Eastern Orthodox The “baptism by fire” of Old Believer leader Avvakum in 1682 Basil the Physician († 1118), by Emperor Alexius I Comnenus; heresy Avvakum Petrovich (1620–1682), by Tsar Feodor III of Russia; combating the Starovery movement Quirinus Kuhlmann († 1689), by Tsar Ivan V of Russia; considered politically dangerous Calvinist Church Michael Servetus (1511–1553) See also Solomon Molcho (1500–1532), apostate. Étienne Dolet (1509–1546), apostate. Lucilio Vanini († 1618), apostate. Gabriel Malagrida († 1761), strangled.[1] List of people executed for witchcraft Forty Martyrs of England and Wales

11 Katarzyna Weiglowa –  Married to a Polish statesman  Converted from Roman Catholicism  Refused to recant – imprisoned for 10 years  Burned at the stake as a heretic  Unitarian and Jewish martyr Bona Sforza presided over the burning – ushered in a new era of tolerance

12 Miguel Serveto –  A true “renaissance man”  Many books and readings on anatomy, physics, biology, theology, poetry, etc.  University of Paris Jehan Chauvin – no debate  On the Errors of the Trinity – 1531, and The Restitution of Christianity – 1553

13 Michael Servetus  Condemned by Catholics and Protestants  Changes name: Michel de Villeneuve  Correspondence with John Calvin  Inquisition – talks them out of it  Inquisition – Escape!  1553 – Geneva for a debate?  Burned at the stake as a heretic “To kill a man is not to defend a doctrine, but to kill a man”

14 King John Sigismund –  Father died when he was a baby  Ruled from  Edict of Torda – 1568  Francis David argued for the Unitarians, and won  His beliefs were that “faith is the gift of God” and cannot be forced by power or fear  Religious freedom for everyone

15 Francis David –  Successfully argued Unitarian stance in Torda  Helped to found Unitarian Church of Transylvania  When King John Sigismund died in 1571, succeeded by a Catholic king  Francis David tried as an ‘innovator’ in 1572 Failure to invoke Jesus Christ during prayer Non-virgin birth Defended by Sozzini  Died in prison in 1579

16 Fausto Paolo Sozzini –  Family of Antitrinitarians  Views held: Christ not pre-extant no original sin rejects proprietary view of atonement predestination in question  1598c.e. Sozzini begins publishing in his own name Mob destroys his home Beats him severely

17 The Polish Brethren  Minor Reformed Church of Poland (Raców) – Non-trinitarian Protestant church Based on teachings of Arius and Sozzini  The Racovian Academy – At least 1,000 students Approx. 1 in 5 Polish intellectuals Arian  After expulsion from Poland, self-identified as Unitarians

18 The Polish Brethren – post-exile  The Brethren were exiled in three directions, finding asylum in: Duchy of Prussia - founded new congregations there The Netherlands Transylvania - Unitarian Church of Transylvania and Unitarian College in Cluj.

19 Other Heretics Jan Hus – John Wycliffe –  Heretic comes from the Greek word “hairesis”  Translation: “to personally select or choose”


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