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Course: Human Ecology & Research Professor Dr. D.Devvuyst Participants: Apostolopoulou Maria- Venetia Amirpour Haredasht Sara Ledezma Garcia Elizabeth.

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Presentation on theme: "Course: Human Ecology & Research Professor Dr. D.Devvuyst Participants: Apostolopoulou Maria- Venetia Amirpour Haredasht Sara Ledezma Garcia Elizabeth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Course: Human Ecology & Research Professor Dr. D.Devvuyst Participants: Apostolopoulou Maria- Venetia Amirpour Haredasht Sara Ledezma Garcia Elizabeth Carla Brussels 2005-2006 FACULTEIT GENEESKUNDE EN FARMACIE Vakgroep Menselijke Ecologie Postgraduate and Master Programme in Human Ecology Sustainability Assessment of Urban Projects, Plans and Policies: a Practical Application. The case of:”Egnatia Motorway odos”, GREECE

2 Preface Egnatia odos→ paradigm of sustainable project?

3 Preface Exploration Brainstorming Co-operation

4 Introduction Road construction project in Greece Greece’s Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning, and Public Works (MEPPW) "EGNATIA ODOS AE"

5 Introduction Regions of Greece: Epirus, Thessaly, Western Macedonia, and Eastern Macedonia & Trace 332 communities, 30 tourist areas and regions of particular environmental or archeological interest Correspond to the half of total farmland, of industrial and mining activity.

6 Progress PROJECT PROGRESS OF EGNATIA AXISLength in km Total cost Section constructed before 1994 (common section with PATHE25 Projects after 1997 Egnatia Odos A.E. undertook the responsibility (Program funded by CFS II & CFS III) Completed and opened to traffic (December 2005) 428 2.800,00 Under construction (completed and opened to traffic in 2006) 29total other sections under construction 148 3.100,00 Total of the axis670 5.900,00

7 General goals To be a backbone of a Northern Greece transport system To shorten distances between Western Macedonia and Trace To link the industrial centers of the West and the East parts of Greece To create a corridor, which can link Balkans to South-eastern Europe

8 Long-term goals Gateway opened to the isolated provinces of Greece New investments Development Cooperation Balkan Market

9 ENVIRON. ASPECTS Environ. care system Energy consumption Natural resources Production of waste Biodiversity Pollution Climate change Population growth

10 Disposable income Muslim minority, Immigration Unemployment Urbanism

11 SOCIAL ASPECTS Reinforce the local community Public Participation Special groups North-south relations Culture Health Education Autonomy Democracy Sustainability Quality of life

12 ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

13 ENVI CONCIENCIOUS AND ETHICAL TRADE DURABLE, ENV FRIENDLY AND ETHICAL PRODUCT. PRIVATE LOCAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP LOCAL ECONOMY (Strength - diversify) EMPLOYMENT ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

14 EMPLOYMENT JOBS IN GENERAL - 286 employees worked in this project Engineers- Geologists- Foresters- Technical personnel, Administrative personnel, Lawyers which are employees under fixed-term or open-end contracts of dependent work. Employees seconded from the Public Sector that are basically concentrate in supervision functions and Engineers that constitutes the Project Manager's personnel. Some remarks: Technical Personnel (64%) while the Administrative-Financial-Legal (36%). 73% of the personnel are University degree holders 96% of the personnel speak fluently one foreign language and 93% is P/C literate

15 EMPLOYMENT JOBS FOR UNDERPRIVILEGIDED, MIGRANTS, UNEMPLOYMENT -By 2004 the immigrant population stands at around 10 % of the total population -There is around 56 % of Albanians. -The principal reason for award of residence permits is dependent employment, at 68 % of the total. -Polish, Georgians and Albanians tend to work in construction. Tendency of the labour market of Greece’s immigrant population + This project starts in Igoumenitsa that is a city near Albania + Construction is one activity that can be supported by non-qualified manpower = THIS PROJECT IS IMPROVING THE AVAILABILITY OF JOBS IN THIS TARGET GROUP.

16 ENVI CONCIENCIOUS AND ETHICAL TRADE DURABLE, ENV FRIENDLY AND ETHICAL PRODUCT. PRIVATE LOCAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP LOCAL ECONOMY (Strength - diversify) EMPLOYMENT ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

17 Strengthening the local economy Not just transport, but also a much wider developmental role, as it is now one of the three main gates and connections of Greece with the European space. 1/3 of the country's total population will be beneficiated directly by means of having better access possibilities to and from other areas. Improvement of the accessibility especially of remote and poorer areas. It shortens distances and brings areas like Epirus, Western Macedonia and Thrace out of their isolation. The Egnatia Motorway interconnects and improves the accessibility of other means of transport and areas of special interest. It contributes with the local economy, specially for small entrepreneurs which have the opportunity to trade their products with less cost now, making them more competitive.

18 REINVERSION OF THE PROFITS IN THE LOCAL ECONOMY There is an eco-museum close to the Egnatia highway, specifically in Grevena where the construction was also made by the Egnatia Company. The company proposed and actually is financing archaeological excavations, protection of monuments, environmental protection works (biotopes, etc.). It looks that there are new projects around this motorway where the profits are going to be invested.

19 DIVERSIFYING THE LOCAL ECONOMY The Egnatia motorway gives the opportunity that new businesses develop around it such as restaurants, hotels, gas stations, shops, markets, etc. It will provide opportunities for new investment in sectors like transport (e.g. freight stations), tourism and industry, and will serve as an axis of development for the whole of Northern Greece.

20 ENVI CONCIENCIOUS AND ETHICAL TRADE DURABLE, ENV FRIENDLY AND ETHICAL PRODUCT. PRIVATE LOCAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP LOCAL ECONOMY (Strength - diversify) EMPLOYMENT ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

21 PRIVATE LOCAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Greece will play an active role in shaping the new regional Balkan market and to take an effective lead in Community operational initiatives associated with the Balkans. The opening of the Balkan market will create new outlets for Greek business and boost the export of the products and services this market demand. Reduction of time and distances between the main markets Reduction of operation cost (mainly transportation) Reduction of the price of their products Local entrepreneurs can be more productive

22 ENVI CONCIENCIOUS AND ETHICAL TRADE DURABLE, ENV FRIENDLY AND ETHICAL PRODUCT. PRIVATE LOCAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP LOCAL ECONOMY (Strength - diversify) EMPLOYMENT ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

23 DURABLE, ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY AND ETHICAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Control the quality of construction of all its projects through a Quality Management System in order to guarantee that the whole infrastructure will be durable. During the process of operation, the audio and video data is being acquired (on a permanent, continuous or regular basis) through Closed Circuit Television Systems. The purpose of this system is: - the regulation of traffic, - the protection of users and the road operation and maintenance personnel - the protection of goods (road infrastructure, etc) A good administration of this system will be able to: Reduce the cost of maintenance Reduce the total cost of the project. Some innovations were introduced: Production of native flora plants for landscape restoration. Landscape Guidelines was introduced to lay down the obligations of designers and constructors, in order to ensure the protection of the environment.

24 ENVI CONCIENCIOUS AND ETHICAL TRADE DURABLE, ENV FRIENDLY AND ETHICAL PRODUCT. PRIVATE LOCAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP LOCAL ECONOMY (Strength - diversify) EMPLOYMENT ECONOMICAL ASPECTS

25 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCIENCIOUS AND ETHICAL TRADE Develop of new activities which are environmental and ethical correct: as tourism, trade and others. The company care about the deposit of their waste. The government tried to strengthen the regions that were isolated before the construction of the motorway, without this means to mitigate the development of the regions that were in general well fortified. Therefore in general the project tried to support a “fair trade” between the communities.

26 This project is really huge and the company tried to consider all aspects in order to avoid whatever kind of damage BUT… OTHER ASPECTS

27 -The project decrease the travelling hours and distances but motivates the use of cars -There is no act of other environmental friendly ways of transportation, such as bike paths, or acts which strengthen the public transportation -There is not widely use of bio-fuels in Greece, and bio-fuels stations in Egnatia odo do not exist either

28 ALTERNATIVES Planning of natural gas stations. Promotion of the use of natural gas vehicles. Creation of bicycle paths close to the cities centres Cable ferry or/and funicular Creation of tram paths  energy from renewable resources. Special instruments  measure air and noise pollution  cars pays tolls that consider theirs external cost Education to users of how to act in emergency situations. Transport museum  History of Egnatia road Limitation of lighting at nights  protect the animals not to loose their orientation.

29 CONCLUSIONS Economic and social development of Greece Improvement of trade as well as the relations between the neighbour countries Allows the isolated communities of Greece to be developed and maintain its population Contains environmental care systems and take into account measures to minimize or to prevent the natural and manmade environments during the design, construction, and operation stages of the project Is a sustainable paradigm in Europe, that may lead to sustainable development of Greece and of Europe as well

30 CONCLUSIONS Renewable resources and parallel paths construction, for bikes and tram, need to be investigated More initiatives and educational programs could be the key issue for more information, health safety and promotion of transportation culture Finally, scientists, governments and all involved stakeholders, must be on the alert with continuous or additional surveys and programs, and with accurate conformation of national international strategies and laws

31 Thank you!!!!


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