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Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Industry.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Industry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Industry

2 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School There are many different types of industry. We can classify industry into three main categories: Tertiary industry Secondary industry Primary industry Types of industry These industries provide a service. These industries extract raw materials directly from the earth or sea. These industries process and manufacture products from raw materials.

3 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Types of industry

4 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School There are also quaternary industries. These industries incorporate a high degree of research and technology in their processes and employ highly qualified people. Biotechnology and computer programming are examples of quaternary industries. Quaternary industries

5 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Oil drilling Categorize these industries under the following headings – Primary, Secondary, Tertiary. Are any of these industries ‘quaternary’? NAPP Pharmaceuticals Research

6 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Industry As a System

7 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School System Diagram of a Shirt Factory

8 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Raw Material Based Industries

9 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Case Study Iron & Steel on Teesside Why Teesside? Nearby raw materials. –Coal (Durham), iron ore (Cleveland hills), limestone (Weardale). Flat land. River Tees for water and imports & exports. Local labour. Nearby markets-shipbuilding, engineering...

10 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Teesside Map Iron Ore from Cleveland Hills Limestone from Weardale Coal from Durham Oil from the North Sea Salt under Billingham

11 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Case Study - Ruhr The Ruhr valley is the industrial heartland of Europe. It is located on the western side of Germany. The region is served by two of Europe’s largest rivers, the Ruhr and the Rhine. Used for power and then transport. Its central location makes it a perfect place for industry, as export to the whole of Europe is very easy. The many local cities provide labour. Natural resources occur in abundance. These were the main reason for the industry locating here in the first place. –There are huge deposits of coal, which powered the heavy industries.

12 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School High Technology Industry

13 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School What is high technology (high tech) industry? High technology industry involves a highly skilled workforce and its products require a high proportion of research and development. High technology industry is relatively footloose since access to raw materials is not very unimportant. Which of the following could be called ‘high tech’ industries? biotechnology iron and steel printing computer software tourism car manufacturing

14 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School High-tech industry M4 Corridor Cambridge and the M11 Corridor Silicon Glen

15 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Why does industry locate on the M4?

16 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Why does industry locate on the M4?

17 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School M4 Corridor – Attractions Office and factory space is cheaper than in London Office and factory space is cheaper than in London Availability of labour in the M4 corridor urban areas Availability of labour in the M4 corridor urban areas A skilled labour force due to the proximity of universities and research institutes A skilled labour force due to the proximity of universities and research institutes Space for building on "greenfield" sites and attractively planned business parks Space for building on "greenfield" sites and attractively planned business parks

18 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School M4 Corridor – Attractions Easy access to the whole country via the motorway network – M4/M25Easy access to the whole country via the motorway network – M4/M25 Good rail access along the M4 corridorGood rail access along the M4 corridor Good access to Heathrow airport and the ports of Bristol and SouthamptonGood access to Heathrow airport and the ports of Bristol and Southampton Honda on the M4 (near Reading)

19 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School M4 Corridor – Attractions A high quality of life and attractive countryside that helps to recruit and retain staffA high quality of life and attractive countryside that helps to recruit and retain staff Easy access to banks and financial organisations in LondonEasy access to banks and financial organisations in London Vodafone Headquarters (Newbury)

20 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Greenfield Sites - Advantages Edge of city away from congestion of CBD Cheaper land Room to expand Closer to motorways Attractive environment Close to skilled workers living in suburbs

21 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Cambridge Science Park

22 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Cambridge Science Park The site was farmland until World War II and then remained derelict until it was developed by Trinity College in 1970.

23 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Cambridge Science Park What type of industries locate in Cambridge Science Park? High tech industries, such as biotechnology and computer companies locate in the Science Park. Examples Option Cambridge located in the park in July This is a Research and Development division of a company which produces products for portable computers. It employs 28 people. GeoInformation is a company which produces high resolution aerial photography for 180 urban areas in the UK.

24 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Cambridge Science Park Cambridge Science is a pleasant place to work. It is landscaped and has facilities such a nursery, health and fitness centre and cafes in its new conference centre. The lake used to be an old gravel pit!

25 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Case Study – LEDC South Korea tiger economiesSouth Korea is in south-east Asia and is described as being part of the tiger economies. The others are Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong. NIC’s share the characteristics of being: exporter –An increasing exporter to the world market, usually by copying existing products and then re-producing them for a much cheaper price. –Rapid growth –Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector, which results in far more exports and a rapidly rising GDP.

26 Geography Department, St. Michael’s School Transnational Corporations (TNCs) or (Multinationals) A company that operates in many countries but the HQ is usually in an MEDC and the factories often in LEDCs. TNCs employ 40+million worldwide. Control 75% of world trade. Examples – Ford, Toyota, IBM, Samsung.


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