Presentation on theme: "Warm Up ● Discuss and write down examples with your teammates for the following questions: 2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among."— Presentation transcript:
1Warm Up● Discuss and write down examples with your teammates for the following questions: 2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among the world’s most culturally diverse and adaptable people in the world”, yet they have much less than modern Americans. Diamond has developed a theory about what has caused these huge discrepancies among different countries, and he says it boils down to geographic luck. Give several examples from the film to support Diamond’s theory.8. Do you agree with Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, “…what’s far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials they’ve had at their disposal.” Why or why not?
2Agriculture Chapter 10 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8eJames M. RubensteinChapter 10Agriculture
3Economic Activities Primary Secondary Tertiary Raw Materials: Agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestrySecondaryManufacturing: capital (for industry) and consumer goodsTertiaryConsumer: retail and personal services; entertainmentQuaternaryBusiness/Producer services: trade, insurance, banking, advertising, transportation and information servicesQuinaryPublic (government) Services: health, education, research, transportation, tourism & recreationThese three levels are often subdivided within the economic activity group “tertiary” as services may be utilized by both consumers & producers.
4Key Issue 1: Where Did Agriculture Originate? Origins Of AgricultureCrop and Animal HearthsHunters And GatherersContemporary Hunting And GatheringInvention Of AgricultureTwo Types Of CultivationLocation Of First Vegetative PlantingLocation Of First Seed AgricultureDiffusion Of Seed AgricultureMapping Agricultural RegionsDifferences between Commercial and Subsistence AgricultureVocabularyagriculturecropvegetative plantingseed agriculturesubsistence agriculturecommercial agricultureprime agricultural landagribusiness
5Animal Hearths Figure 10-3 ON YOUR PLACE MAPS: INDICATE EACH OF THE MAJOR ANIMAL HEARTHS WITH A SYMBOL FOR EACH.Animal HearthsFigure 10-3
6Crop Hearths Figure 10-2 ON YOUR PLACE MAPS: LABEL EACH OF THE MAJOR CROP HEARTHS YOU RECOGNIZECrop HearthsFigure 10-2
7Agricultural Origins and Regions Origins of agricultureHunters and gatherersBefore the invention of agriculture, all humans probably obtain the food they needed for survival by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants (including berries, nuts, fruits, and roots). Hunters and gatherers lived in small groups, usually fewer than 50 persons, because a larger number would quickly exhaust the available resources within walking distance.TODAYEstimated 250,000 people living in isolated areas still live as hunter-gatherersArctic, and the interiors of Africa, South America and AustraliaInvention of agricultureAgriculture is the deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution c B.C.
8Location of Agricultural Hearths Vegetative planting(aka root cropping) is the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots [Cassava (manioc or yucca), yams, sweet potatoes]
9Agricultural Origins and Regions Location of agricultural hearthsSeed agriculturethe reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilizationricemilletsorghumflaxbarleywheat
10Seed Agriculture Hearths Seed agriculture also originated in several hearths and diffused from those elsewhere.
11Carl Sauer: 11 areas of agriculture innovations Agriculture probably did not originate in one location, but began in multiple, independent hearths, or points of origin. From these hearths agricultural practices diffused across Earth’s surface.
13Animal DomesticationThe best animals to farm are large, plant eating mammals. Over the years, humans have probably tried to domesticate all of them, usually without success. Despite repeated efforts, Africans have never domesticated the elephant.Animals which make suitable candidates for domestication have the following characteristics:start giving birth in their first or second yearshave one or two offspring a year (so their productivity is high)behaviorally they need to be social animals (males, females and the young live together as a group)get along with humansinternal social hierarchywhich means that if humans can control the leader, they will also gain control of the whole herd.Diamond counted 148 different species of wild, plant eating, terrestrial animals that weigh over 100 pounds. Of those, we have only successfully farmed for any length of time –just 14. They are: goats, sheep, pigs, cows, horses, donkeys, Bactrian camels, Arabian camels, water buffalos, llamas, reindeers, yaks, mithans and Bali cattle. All but one [llamas of South America] of these animals are native to Asia, North Africa and Europe.The Big Four livestock animals: cows, pigs, sheep and goats were native to the Middle East.
14U.S. Farms by RegionThe number of farms in the United States in 2008 is estimated at 2.2 million, 0.2 percent fewer than in 2007.Total land in farms, at million acres, decreased 1.56 million acres, or 0.2 percent, from 2007.The average farm size was 418 acres, unchanged from the previous year. The decline in the number of farms and land in farmsreflects a continuing consolidation in farming operations and diversion of agricultural land to nonagriculturaluses.USDA 2008 Report
15NOTE: Map at left from 2002 but change in farms from 2002 to 2008 would show little visible change on the map.
20Differences Between Subsistence And Commercial Agriculture Purpose Of FarmingPercentage Of Farmers In The Labor ForceUse Of MachineryFarm SizeRelationship Of Farming To Other Businesses
21Classifying Agricultural Regions LDCs = subsistence agricultureMDCs = commercial agricultureSubsistence vs. commercial agricultureSubsistence agriculture is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s familyCommercial agriculture is the production of food primarily for sale off the farmPracticePurposeLabor forceMachineryFarm sizeOff farm contactSubsistence agricultureLDCsPersonal consumptionOn average 55% of workforce engaged in farmingHuman and animal powered toolsVery smallOccasional surplus soldCommercial agricultureMDCsGrow crops and raise animals primarily for sale off the farm for profitOn average 5% of workforce engaged in farmingMechanized farm machines, computer technology and scienceLarge [US average in 2008 = 418 acres]agribusiness – farms one part of a large food production industry including food processing, packaging, sorting, distributing, and retailing
24Farmland Loss in Maryland Fig :Overlaps of soil quality, environmental and cultural features, and population growth may show areas of greatest threat of farmland loss in Maryland.Baltimore and Washington DC population concentrations have merged over time.BaltimoreWashington DCA serious problem in the United States has been the loss of the most productive farmland, known as prime agricultural land, as urban areas sprawl into the surrounding countryside.
25Classifying Agricultural Regions Mapping agricultural regionsWorld Agricultural Regions: Derwent Whittlesey, 193611 main agricultural regions5 important to LDCs6 important to MDCsClimate influences the crop that is grown and/or animals raisedRelationship exists between climate and agricultureDry climate often equates to livestock ranching rather than farmingCulture influences agricultureHog (pig/swine) production low to nonexistent in predominantly Muslim (and Jewish) regions due to religious taboo on pork.
28Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Shifting cultivationMost prevalent in low-latitude, A-type climatesTwo features:Land is cleared by slashing and burning debrisSlash-and-burn agricultureLand is tended for only a few years at a timeTypes of crops grown vary regionallyTraditionally, land is not owned individually
30Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Pastoral nomadism (herding domesticated animals)Found primarily in arid and semiarid B-type climatesAnimals are seldom eaten (“products” sold)The size of the herd indicates power and prestigeType of animal depends on the regionFor example, camels are favored in North Africa and SW AsiaTranshumance practiced by some pastoral nomadsVertical (mountains to valleysduring seasons)Horizontally (across land – affectedby politics, war, climate, economy, etc.)
32Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Intensive subsistenceFound in areas with high population and agricultural densitiesEspecially in East, South, and Southeast AsiaTo maximize production, little to no land is wastedIntensive with wet rice dominantIntensive with wet rice not dominant
35Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs? Plantation farmingFound in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaProducts are grown in LDCs but typically are sold to MDCsPlantations specialize in one or two cash cropsImportant crops = coffee, sugarcane, cotton, rubber, tobacco, aaaaaaand pineapple…A large labor force is usuallyneeded in sparsely settled regions
37Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Mixed crop and livestock farmingMost land = devoted to cropsMost profits = derive from the livestockDairy farmingRegional distribution: the milkshedTwo primary challengesLabor-intensiveExpense of winter feed
41Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs? Grain farmingThe largest commercial producer of grain = the United StatesLivestock ranchingPracticed in marginal environmentsMediterranean agricultureBased on horticultureCommercial gardening and fruit farmingTruck farms
50STONE AGE WAS VERY RANDOM NEOLITHIC REVOLUTIONTHESTONE AGE WAS VERY RANDOM
51NEOLITHIC REVOLUTIONTransition from hunter/gather society into systematic agriculture and domestication of animals.c. 8000ish BC or BCIt allowed people to begin to settle down and build surpluses of food (food security) which allowed specialization, and inevitably civilizations.Mid East/Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia/SW AsiaImproves CBR, decreases CDR.
53INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Advancements to transportation and technologies that resulted from the Industrial Revolution greatly increased access to food, production, preservation.This can include: railroads and trains, better refrigeration, advanced factory systems to speed up production, new methods of crop rotation, better equipment (iron plows, cotton gin, spinning jenny, flying shuttle, etc.).ADBegan in England and spread mostly to MDCs.
55Green RevolutionGreen Revolution had massive advancements of genetically modified organisms in agriculture.This has allowed greater yields of crops, more productivity from animals and greatly increased agricultural output.Beginning in the 1940s.Primarily affects LDCs (India, China, Latin America) with the diffusion of higher-yield seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and biotechnology.Still not completely affecting Africa (Monsanto…)
56Green RevolutionGreen Revolution had massive advancements of genetically modified organisms in agriculture.This has allowed greater yields of crops, more productivity from animals and greatly increased agricultural output.Beginning in the 1940s.Primarily affects LDCs (India, China, Latin America) with the diffusion of higher-yield seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and biotechnology.This revolution sought to eradicate famine in many nations and massively increase food production, by effectively ending subsistence agriculture and replacing it with commercial agriculture. The idea was to transplant many of the systems, ideas and technology of Western farming into (mainly) Asian agriculture, whilst researching and utilizing the resources Asian countries had.
58Bioengineering Revolution The Green Revolution could not have happened without the major advancements of MDCs in Genetically Modifying Organisms (GMOs).In agriculture, currently marketed genetically engineered crops have traits such as resistance to pests, resistance to herbicides, increased nutritional value, or production of valuable goods such as drugs (pharming).Products under development include crops that are able to thrive in environmental conditions outside the species' native range or in changed conditions in their range (e.g. drought or salt resistance).
59Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Challenges for commercial farmersAccess to markets is importantThe von Thünen model (1826)The choice of crop to grow is related to the proximity to the market
60Contains six assumptions There is only one market available, self-sufficient with no outside influence.All farmers are market oriented, producing goods for sale. (Not subsistence.)The physical environment is uniform; there are no rivers or mountains.All points at equal distances from the market have equal access to the market.All farmers act to maximize profits.The dietary preferences of the population are those of Germanic Europeans.
61Land rentThe main concept is land rent or land value, which will decrease as one gets farther away from central markets.Rent is highest in the closest proximity to urban markets. (Bid-Rent Theory)Thus, agricultural products that have intensive land use, have high transportation costs and were in great demand would be located close to urban markets.
62Major concepts: Distance from the city Preservation of food Amount of space
63So……….Dairying and gardening of fruits and vegetables would be closer to the urban market while…Timber and firewood for fuel and building materials would be in the second zone.Mixed farming, commercial grain and orchards and extensive cattle ranching would be located farther away. Transportation is cheap: the animals can walk to the city for butchering.
64Why?Some products spoiled more quickly, needed more sensitive transportation, or generate higher prices at marketThese products mean the farmer can afford higher land rent.
67What is ridge tillage?Ridge tillage resembles contemporary and traditional cropping systems in which plants grow on a hill or bund. Cotton, for example, is often grown on ridges for purposes of irrigation. In ridge tillage the ridges are a product of cultivation of the previous crop and are not tilled out after harvest. The planter may remove part of the ridge top, but before planting there is no tillage. This provides potential advantages in soil conservation and weed management.
68Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Challenges for commercial farmersOverproductionAgricultural efficiencies have resulted in overproductionEspecially commodity crops like cornGovernment subsidies encourage specific productionDemand has remained relatively constantAs a consequence, incomes for farmers are lowSustainable agricultureSensitive land managementIntegrated crop and livestockLess usage of pesticides and chemicals
69Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Challenges for subsistence farmersPopulation growthInternational tradeDrug cropsChanges in land usage (ie. Brazil livestock)
71Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties? Strategies to increase food supplyExpanding agricultural landIncreasing productivityThe green revolution: The application of science to increasing agricultural productivity, including the breeding of high-yield varieties of grains, the effective use of pesticides, and improved fertilization, irrigation, mechanization, and soil conservation techniques. The impact on environment, geopolitics or the world economy are not completely understood yet.Identifying new food sourcesCultivating oceans, developing higher-protein cereals, and improving palatability of foodsIncreasing trade