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Warm Up ● Discuss and write down examples with your teammates for the following questions:  2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up ● Discuss and write down examples with your teammates for the following questions:  2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up ● Discuss and write down examples with your teammates for the following questions:  2. Jared Diamond refers to the people of New Guinea as “among the world’s most culturally diverse and adaptable people in the world”, yet they have much less than modern Americans. Diamond has developed a theory about what has caused these huge discrepancies among different countries, and he says it boils down to geographic luck. Give several examples from the film to support Diamond’s theory. 8. Do you agree with Jared Diamond when he says of a civilizations ability to gain power, wealth, and strength, “…what’s far more important is the hand that people have been dealt, the raw materials they’ve had at their disposal.” Why or why not?

2 Agriculture Chapter 10 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 10 Agriculture

3 Economic Activities Primary Secondary Tertiary
Raw Materials: Agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry Secondary Manufacturing: capital (for industry) and consumer goods Tertiary Consumer: retail and personal services; entertainment Quaternary Business/Producer services: trade, insurance, banking, advertising, transportation and information services Quinary Public (government) Services: health, education, research, transportation, tourism & recreation These three levels are often subdivided within the economic activity group “tertiary” as services may be utilized by both consumers & producers.

4 Key Issue 1: Where Did Agriculture Originate?
Origins Of Agriculture Crop and Animal Hearths Hunters And Gatherers Contemporary Hunting And Gathering Invention Of Agriculture Two Types Of Cultivation Location Of First Vegetative Planting Location Of First Seed Agriculture Diffusion Of Seed Agriculture Mapping Agricultural Regions Differences between Commercial and Subsistence Agriculture Vocabulary agriculture crop vegetative planting seed agriculture subsistence agriculture commercial agriculture prime agricultural land agribusiness

5 Animal Hearths Figure 10-3 ON YOUR PLACE MAPS:

6 Crop Hearths Figure 10-2 ON YOUR PLACE MAPS:

7 Agricultural Origins and Regions
Origins of agriculture Hunters and gatherers Before the invention of agriculture, all humans probably obtain the food they needed for survival by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants (including berries, nuts, fruits, and roots). Hunters and gatherers lived in small groups, usually fewer than 50 persons, because a larger number would quickly exhaust the available resources within walking distance. TODAY Estimated 250,000 people living in isolated areas still live as hunter-gatherers Arctic, and the interiors of Africa, South America and Australia Invention of agriculture Agriculture is the deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain. Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution c B.C.

8 Location of Agricultural Hearths
Vegetative planting (aka root cropping) is the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots [Cassava (manioc or yucca), yams, sweet potatoes]

9 Agricultural Origins and Regions
Location of agricultural hearths Seed agriculture the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization rice millet sorghum flax barley wheat

10 Seed Agriculture Hearths
Seed agriculture also originated in several hearths and diffused from those elsewhere.

11 Carl Sauer: 11 areas of agriculture innovations
Agriculture probably did not originate in one location, but began in multiple, independent hearths, or points of origin. From these hearths agricultural practices diffused across Earth’s surface.


13 Animal Domestication The best animals to farm are large, plant eating mammals. Over the years, humans have probably tried to domesticate all of them, usually without success. Despite repeated efforts, Africans have never domesticated the elephant. Animals which make suitable candidates for domestication have the following characteristics: start giving birth in their first or second years have one or two offspring a year (so their productivity is high) behaviorally they need to be social animals (males, females and the young live together as a group) get along with humans internal social hierarchy which means that if humans can control the leader, they will also gain control of the whole herd. Diamond counted 148 different species of wild, plant eating, terrestrial animals that weigh over 100 pounds. Of those, we have only successfully farmed for any length of time –just 14. They are: goats, sheep, pigs, cows, horses, donkeys, Bactrian camels, Arabian camels, water buffalos, llamas, reindeers, yaks, mithans and Bali cattle. All but one [llamas of South America] of these animals are native to Asia, North Africa and Europe. The Big Four livestock animals: cows, pigs, sheep and goats were native to the Middle East.

14 U.S. Farms by Region The number of farms in the United States in 2008 is estimated at 2.2 million, 0.2 percent fewer than in 2007. Total land in farms, at million acres, decreased 1.56 million acres, or 0.2 percent, from 2007. The average farm size was 418 acres, unchanged from the previous year. The decline in the number of farms and land in farms reflects a continuing consolidation in farming operations and diversion of agricultural land to nonagricultural uses. USDA 2008 Report

15 NOTE: Map at left from 2002 but change in farms from 2002 to 2008 would show little visible change on the map.


17 Spring Wheat Winter Wheat



20 Differences Between Subsistence And Commercial Agriculture
Purpose Of Farming Percentage Of Farmers In The Labor Force Use Of Machinery Farm Size Relationship Of Farming To Other Businesses

21 Classifying Agricultural Regions
LDCs = subsistence agriculture MDCs = commercial agriculture Subsistence vs. commercial agriculture Subsistence agriculture is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family Commercial agriculture is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm Practice Purpose Labor force Machinery Farm size Off farm contact Subsistence agriculture LDCs Personal consumption On average 55% of workforce engaged in farming Human and animal powered tools Very small Occasional surplus sold Commercial agriculture MDCs Grow crops and raise animals primarily for sale off the farm for profit On average 5% of workforce engaged in farming Mechanized farm machines, computer technology and science Large [US average in 2008 = 418 acres] agribusiness – farms one part of a large food production industry including food processing, packaging, sorting, distributing, and retailing

22 Agricultural Workers Figure 10-5

23 Area of Farmland Per Tractor
Figure 10-6

24 Farmland Loss in Maryland
Fig : Overlaps of soil quality, environmental and cultural features, and population growth may show areas of greatest threat of farmland loss in Maryland. Baltimore and Washington DC population concentrations have merged over time. Baltimore Washington DC A serious problem in the United States has been the loss of the most productive farmland, known as prime agricultural land, as urban areas sprawl into the surrounding countryside.

25 Classifying Agricultural Regions
Mapping agricultural regions World Agricultural Regions: Derwent Whittlesey, 1936 11 main agricultural regions 5 important to LDCs 6 important to MDCs Climate influences the crop that is grown and/or animals raised Relationship exists between climate and agriculture Dry climate often equates to livestock ranching rather than farming Culture influences agriculture Hog (pig/swine) production low to nonexistent in predominantly Muslim (and Jewish) regions due to religious taboo on pork.

26 World Agriculture Regions

27 World Climate Regions Koppen Climate Regions Map

28 Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs?
Shifting cultivation Most prevalent in low-latitude, A-type climates Two features: Land is cleared by slashing and burning debris Slash-and-burn agriculture Land is tended for only a few years at a time Types of crops grown vary regionally Traditionally, land is not owned individually

29 World Agriculture Regions

30 Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs?
Pastoral nomadism (herding domesticated animals) Found primarily in arid and semiarid B-type climates Animals are seldom eaten (“products” sold) The size of the herd indicates power and prestige Type of animal depends on the region For example, camels are favored in North Africa and SW Asia Transhumance practiced by some pastoral nomads Vertical (mountains to valleys during seasons) Horizontally (across land – affected by politics, war, climate, economy, etc.)

31 World Agriculture Regions

32 Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs?
Intensive subsistence Found in areas with high population and agricultural densities Especially in East, South, and Southeast Asia To maximize production, little to no land is wasted Intensive with wet rice dominant Intensive with wet rice not dominant

33 World Agriculture Regions

34 Rice Production Figure 10-12

35 Where are Agricultural Regions in LDCs?
Plantation farming Found in Latin America, Africa, and Asia Products are grown in LDCs but typically are sold to MDCs Plantations specialize in one or two cash crops Important crops = coffee, sugarcane, cotton, rubber, tobacco, aaaaaaand pineapple… A large labor force is usually needed in sparsely settled regions

36 World Agriculture Regions

37 Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs?
Mixed crop and livestock farming Most land = devoted to crops Most profits = derive from the livestock Dairy farming Regional distribution: the milkshed Two primary challenges Labor-intensive Expense of winter feed

38 World Agriculture Regions

39 Corn (Maize) Production
Figure 10-15

40 Milk Production Figure 10-17

41 Where are Agricultural Regions in MDCs?
Grain farming The largest commercial producer of grain = the United States Livestock ranching Practiced in marginal environments Mediterranean agriculture Based on horticulture Commercial gardening and fruit farming Truck farms

42 World Agriculture Regions

43 Wheat Production Figure 10-19

44 Grain Imports and Exports
Figure 10-32

45 Meat Production Figure 10-21

46 3 Agricultural Revolutions
Neolithic Revolution OR Agricultural Revolution Industrial Revolution Green Revolution & Bioengineering Revolution





51 NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Transition from hunter/gather society into systematic agriculture and domestication of animals. c. 8000ish BC or BC It allowed people to begin to settle down and build surpluses of food (food security) which allowed specialization, and inevitably civilizations. Mid East/Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia/SW Asia Improves CBR, decreases CDR.


Advancements to transportation and technologies that resulted from the Industrial Revolution greatly increased access to food, production, preservation. This can include: railroads and trains, better refrigeration, advanced factory systems to speed up production, new methods of crop rotation, better equipment (iron plows, cotton gin, spinning jenny, flying shuttle, etc.). AD Began in England and spread mostly to MDCs.

54 Green & Bioengineering Revolutions

55 Green Revolution Green Revolution had massive advancements of genetically modified organisms in agriculture. This has allowed greater yields of crops, more productivity from animals and greatly increased agricultural output. Beginning in the 1940s. Primarily affects LDCs (India, China, Latin America) with the diffusion of higher-yield seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and biotechnology. Still not completely affecting Africa (Monsanto…)

56 Green Revolution Green Revolution had massive advancements of genetically modified organisms in agriculture. This has allowed greater yields of crops, more productivity from animals and greatly increased agricultural output. Beginning in the 1940s. Primarily affects LDCs (India, China, Latin America) with the diffusion of higher-yield seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and biotechnology. This revolution sought to eradicate famine in many nations and massively increase food production, by effectively ending subsistence agriculture and replacing it with commercial agriculture.  The idea was to transplant many of the systems, ideas and technology of Western farming into (mainly) Asian agriculture, whilst researching and utilizing the resources Asian countries had.


58 Bioengineering Revolution
The Green Revolution could not have happened without the major advancements of MDCs in Genetically Modifying Organisms (GMOs). In agriculture, currently marketed genetically engineered crops have traits such as resistance to pests, resistance to herbicides, increased nutritional value, or production of valuable goods such as drugs (pharming). Products under development include crops that are able to thrive in environmental conditions outside the species' native range or in changed conditions in their range (e.g. drought or salt resistance). 

59 Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?
Challenges for commercial farmers Access to markets is important The von Thünen model (1826) The choice of crop to grow is related to the proximity to the market

60 Contains six assumptions
There is only one market available, self-sufficient with no outside influence. All farmers are market oriented, producing goods for sale. (Not subsistence.) The physical environment is uniform; there are no rivers or mountains. All points at equal distances from the market have equal access to the market. All farmers act to maximize profits. The dietary preferences of the population are those of Germanic Europeans.

61 Land rent The main concept is land rent or land value, which will decrease as one gets farther away from central markets. Rent is highest in the closest proximity to urban markets. (Bid-Rent Theory) Thus, agricultural products that have intensive land use, have high transportation costs and were in great demand would be located close to urban markets.

62 Major concepts: Distance from the city Preservation of food
Amount of space

63 So………. Dairying and gardening of fruits and vegetables would be closer to the urban market while… Timber and firewood for fuel and building materials would be in the second zone. Mixed farming, commercial grain and orchards and extensive cattle ranching would be located farther away. Transportation is cheap: the animals can walk to the city for butchering.

64 Why? Some products spoiled more quickly, needed more sensitive transportation, or generate higher prices at market These products mean the farmer can afford higher land rent.

65 It doesn’t always look the same:


67 What is ridge tillage? Ridge tillage resembles contemporary and traditional cropping systems in which plants grow on a hill or bund. Cotton, for example, is often grown on ridges for purposes of irrigation. In ridge tillage the ridges are a product of cultivation of the previous crop and are not tilled out after harvest. The planter may remove part of the ridge top, but before planting there is no tillage. This provides potential advantages in soil conservation and weed management.

68 Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?
Challenges for commercial farmers Overproduction Agricultural efficiencies have resulted in overproduction Especially commodity crops like corn Government subsidies encourage specific production Demand has remained relatively constant As a consequence, incomes for farmers are low Sustainable agriculture Sensitive land management Integrated crop and livestock Less usage of pesticides and chemicals

69 Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?
Challenges for subsistence farmers Population growth International trade Drug crops Changes in land usage (ie. Brazil livestock)

70 Drug Trade

71 Why Do Farmers Face Economic Difficulties?
Strategies to increase food supply Expanding agricultural land Increasing productivity The green revolution: The application of science to increasing agricultural productivity, including the breeding of high-yield varieties of grains, the effective use of pesticides, and improved fertilization, irrigation, mechanization, and soil conservation techniques. The impact on environment, geopolitics or the world economy are not completely understood yet. Identifying new food sources Cultivating oceans, developing higher-protein cereals, and improving palatability of foods Increasing trade

72 Agricultural Land and Population
Figure 10-28

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