Presentation on theme: "Africa Global 9 Mrs. Hart, Mrs. Costello Mrs. Suto, Ms. Soddano."— Presentation transcript:
Africa Global 9 Mrs. Hart, Mrs. Costello Mrs. Suto, Ms. Soddano
Geography 2 nd largest continent 1/5 of Earth’s land surface Varied geographic features.
Climate Zones Dry steppe Rain Forest – less than 5% of the land Savanna- grassy plains Desert- Sahara (largest in the world), Kalahari, Namib Fertile farmland- Mediterranean coast of North Africa, and tip of South Africa
Limitations to movement Very large coast line with few good harbors Much of interior is high plateau ● Cataracts (steep waterfalls) and rapids hinder travel between the coast and the interior. Obstacles to Movement
Migration Great Rift Valley of East Africa served as a gateway into the interior of the continent with many navigable rivers. It was also home of the Earth’s earliest people.
Migration The Sahara was not always desert. It began as fertile land in the Nile Valley. Neolithic farmers cultivated crops and domesticated animals. Climate change dried the land and the desert spread (desertification)
Affects of desertification People were forced to find new areas to live. They migrated across Africa. They adapted to many climates and developed a diversity of cultures: – Nomadic cattle herders. – Farmers of grain and root crops. – Great empires in farming regions.
North Africa Early civilizations had strong ties to the Mediterranean world. One of the most powerful was Carthage. Carthage- gained its power and wealth from trade. – It was founded by Phoenician traders and developed a large empire with outposts ( distant military stations in France and England)
Roman Rule Territorial and trade rivalries developed between Carthage and the Roman Empire. Rome crushed Carthage in the Punic Wars. Roman achievements: *Built aqueducts, roads, bridges and cities across North Africa. *Developed farmland. *Imported exotic wildlife for gladiator matches. *Used North Africans as Roman soldiers. *Spread Christianity
Arabs in North Africa Arab Armies brought Islam to North Africa. At first they occupied cities and battled the Berbers in the desert. Later they joined forces and conquered Spain. Islam replaced Christianity, and Arabic replaced Latin. North Africa continued to be a global trade center and Muslim culture spread.
West Africa By 100 AD, people had migrated from North Africa and settled in villages along the Senegal and Niger Rivers around Lake Chad. A trade network developed, linking the savanna to forest lands in the south across the Sahara to Mediterranean. Salt as well as gold were important commodities, or valuable products, dominated trade. Salt was considered valuable because people who didn’t have it, needed it to survive.
Ghana “Land of Gold” Ghana, between the Senegal and Niger Rivers, controlled the gold-salt trade. Muslim merchants brought Islamic faith to Ghana as well as military technology, ideas about government, written language, coinage, business methods, and style of architecture.
Mali In 1312, Mansa Musa came into power, expanding Mali’s borders and conquering cities in the north. He worked to insure peace and order throughout the empire. He converted to Islam, and made a pilgrimage to Mecca. He showered his wealth on cities he passed through. He traveled with a caravan of more than 500 slaves and 100 camels laden with gold. As a result of his travels, cultural diffusion occurred. The city of Timbuktu became a leading center of learning.
Songhai Sonni Ali founded and ruled the empire called Songhai, which emerged when Mali fell apart. After he died, Askia Muhammad set up a Muslim dynasty, improved the government, and made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Civil war and the invasion of Moroccan armies using gunpowder weapons, caused the downfall of the Songhai empire, which then splintered into many smaller kingdoms.
Other Kingdoms of West Africa: Hausa Founded in the fertile northern lands of modern- day Nigeria. They probably migrated to this region when the Sahara dried out and became farmers and traders. They developed independent city-states which became thriving commercial centers.
Kano Most prosperous of Hausa city-states was Kano. It had a 14 mile circumference, and more than 30,000 people. Islam was the main religion. They Developed own written language based on Arabic. Many leaders were women.
Benin Benin arose south of the savanna in the rain forest off of Guinea coast. Farming villages appeared and they traded pepper, ivory, and later slaves. An oba, or king, was the chief political and religious leader. They were known for decorated and elaborate brass and bronze plaques and sculptures.
Trade Routes of East Africa: Axum Axum’s people were descendants of farmers and traders who brought Jewish religious traditions through Arabia. Its two main cities were Adulis on the Red Sea, and the capital city of Axum. Their location commanded a triangular trade network that connected Africa to India through the Arabian Sea to the Mediterranean world. They developed a unique written and spoken language.
Spread of Christianity Through cultural diffusion goods and ideas spread. Christianity took hold through Axum, North Africa, and Mediterranean world. Most of the continent at that time followed Islam. As Islam spread, Christian Axum became isolated from the trade network, and civil war and economic decline weakened the kingdom.
Ethiopia Descendants of Axumites were able to maintain their independence in part due to the unifying power of their Coptic Christian faith. Axum saw itself as a Christian outpost for centuries in protected mountain territories. Christians maintained close ties with the Holy Land, while adapting traditional East African drum music and dances that became part of their ceremonies
East African City-States Trading cities rose along the coast of East Africa. Arab and Persian merchants established trading communities. Slaves captured inland were traded to Persian traders. A new language emerged- Swahili, a mixture of Arabic, Bantu, and African.