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Russia/ SOVIET UNION. Russia 900-1917 Soviet Union (USSR) 1917-1991 Russia 1991-present.

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Presentation on theme: "Russia/ SOVIET UNION. Russia 900-1917 Soviet Union (USSR) 1917-1991 Russia 1991-present."— Presentation transcript:

1 Russia/ SOVIET UNION

2 Russia Soviet Union (USSR) Russia 1991-present

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4 Communism A system where the government controls all the factories, farmland, jobs, healthcare – basically everything A system where the government controls all the factories, farmland, jobs, healthcare – basically everything The symbol for it is the The symbol for it is the Hammer (factory workers) Hammer (factory workers) and the Sickle (farmers) and the Sickle (farmers) Their slogan is Their slogan is “workers of the world unite together to overthrow capitalism” “workers of the world unite together to overthrow capitalism”

5 Gulags (prisons, labor/concentration camps) in Siberia

6 Romanov Tsars: Tsars are the kings of Russia Tsars are the kings of Russia Romanov is the royal family of Russia Romanov is the royal family of Russia Romanov Dynasty ruled Russia for 300 years Romanov Dynasty ruled Russia for 300 years

7 1. Look at source 2 on p How many different people groups lived in Russia? 2. List 3 characteristics of the peasants and the country side (p.100) 3. List 3 characteristics of the Aristocracy 4. List 3 characteristics of people living in the city (p.101) 5. Who were the Capitalists? 6. The Czar ruled Russia as an autocracy - what does that mean? (p.102) 7. List 3 facts about Karl Marx and marxist theory (in the margin on p. 103) 8. So, do you think people wanted to overthrow the Tsar? 9. What do you think the Tsar’s police were always looking for?

8 The Last Russian Tsar Tsar Nicolas Tsar Nicolas Romonov II His daughter Anastasia His daughter Anastasia Grigori Rasputin Grigori Rasputin

9 Peasants (poor landless farmers) : made up 80% of the Russian population Peasants (poor landless farmers) : made up 80% of the Russian population City/factory workers: made up 18% of the population City/factory workers: made up 18% of the population Aristocracy: rich landowners who owned most of the land 1% Aristocracy: rich landowners who owned most of the land 1% Government workers including secret police 1% Government workers including secret police 1%

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11 Karl Marx writer of the book Communist Manifesto

12 Karl Marx German political writer German political writer Disgusted by the living and working conditions of the poor factory workers Disgusted by the living and working conditions of the poor factory workers Writer of a book entitled the “Communist Manifesto” Writer of a book entitled the “Communist Manifesto” Ideas included: throughout history there have been class struggles between the rich (bourgeoisie ) and the workers (proletariat) Ideas included: throughout history there have been class struggles between the rich (bourgeoisie ) and the workers (proletariat) said that the rich would always use capitalism to influence lawmakers to write laws to stay in power said that the rich would always use capitalism to influence lawmakers to write laws to stay in power Said that the PROLETARIAT (workers) of the world need to unite together and have a revolution to overthrow capitalism Said that the PROLETARIAT (workers) of the world need to unite together and have a revolution to overthrow capitalism COMMUNISM will one DAY overthrow Capitalism!!! COMMUNISM will one DAY overthrow Capitalism!!! The communist leaders would then set up a “communist” system where all private ownership would be abolished The communist leaders would then set up a “communist” system where all private ownership would be abolished All factories and farmland would be owned by the state (government) or in common All factories and farmland would be owned by the state (government) or in common In this system everyone would have a job, adequate housing, healthcare, access to education, in essence be equal In this system everyone would have a job, adequate housing, healthcare, access to education, in essence be equal

13 Assignment: on the back of the question sheet copy these vocabulary words and answer the 3 questions Assignment: on the back of the question sheet copy these vocabulary words and answer the 3 questions Autocracy (Autocrat): Rule by one person Autocracy (Autocrat): Rule by one person Okhrana: The Tsar’s secret police Okhrana: The Tsar’s secret police Proletariat(workers): Proletariat(workers): factory workers and poor farmers factory workers and poor farmers Bourgeoisie: the wealthier people making good money Bourgeoisie: the wealthier people making good money Bolsheviks: communists revolutionaries that were with Vladimir Lenin Bolsheviks: communists revolutionaries that were with Vladimir Lenin Soviets: groups of communist workers that organized protests in major cities around Russia Soviets: groups of communist workers that organized protests in major cities around Russia 1. Why might Russians not like the Tsar and his form of government? 1. Why might Russians not like the Tsar and his form of government? 2. What kinds of people do you think the Okhrana were looking for? 2. What kinds of people do you think the Okhrana were looking for? 2. Why might Russian peasants and factory workers like the Bolsheviks? 2. Why might Russian peasants and factory workers like the Bolsheviks? 3. What Russians wouldn’t like the Bolsheviks? 3. What Russians wouldn’t like the Bolsheviks?

14 Closure: Complete these sentences 1. An Autocracy ________________ 2. The proletariat were the _________ 3. The bourgeoisie were the ________ 4. Karl Marx ________ 5. Vladimir Lenin __________ 6. The Bolsheviks ________ 7. Soviets________ 8. Tsar Nicolas Romanov II __________

15 Vladimir LENIN : leader of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution brought Communism to Russia - The country then became the Soviet Union

16 1. what was Bloody Sunday? (p. 104) 2. How did the Tsar survive? 3. look at the graphic on page 110 and explain 4 reasons that the Tsar did not survive the 1917 Revolution 4. Read 'An analysis of the Bolshevik Revolution' on p. 115 and explain why the Bolsheviks took control of Russia

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20 What happened to Lenin’s older brother? What happened to Lenin’s older brother? What book influenced his life? What book influenced his life? Why do you think he got sent to prison in Siberia? Why do you think he got sent to prison in Siberia? Who were the Bolsheviks? Who were the Bolsheviks? What happened to the Czar (Tsar Nicolas II) ? What happened to the Czar (Tsar Nicolas II) ? What did Lenin and the Bolsheviks do in November of 1917? What did Lenin and the Bolsheviks do in November of 1917? What did they name this new country? What did they name this new country? Russia was then in a civil war – who do you think were the 2 sides? Russia was then in a civil war – who do you think were the 2 sides?

21 COMMUNISM workers of the world unite to overthrow capitalism Communism: A system of government that controls all the farmland, all the stores, restaurants, the hospitals, schools, housing, etc. Communism: A system of government that controls all the farmland, all the stores, restaurants, the hospitals, schools, housing, etc. No one is homeless, no one is unemployed, no one is without healthcare but no one can own a business so no one is rich No one is homeless, no one is unemployed, no one is without healthcare but no one can own a business so no one is rich Dictionary definition: a system of social organization (or government) in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single political party Dictionary definition: a system of social organization (or government) in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single political party WHY CAPITALISTS HATE COMMUNISM WHY CAPITALISTS HATE COMMUNISM They are going to take away people’s private property (wealth) Businesses restaurants, land, houses, etc.– take away your opportunity to become rich They are going to take away people’s private property (wealth) Businesses restaurants, land, houses, etc.– take away your opportunity to become rich

22 Give a man a fish and he eats for a day Give a man a fish and he eats for a day Teach a man to fish and he’ll eat for a lifetime Teach a man to fish and he’ll eat for a lifetime

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24 Capitalism Is an economic system where the private individuals control the land, business and industry Is an economic system where the private individuals control the land, business and industry Thereby making profit Thereby making profit

25 Proletariat(workers): Proletariat(workers): factory workers and poor farmers factory workers and poor farmers Bourgeoisie: the capitalists – people making money Bourgeoisie: the capitalists – people making money

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27 1.Under the Romanov tsars did Russia have a democracy or dictatorship? 2. Why do dictators have so many secret police and spies? 3. What is Siberia known for? 4. What is the % breakdown of the Russian population people groups for this time period? 5. what are Revolutionaries? 6. what happens in a Revolution? 7. What do you think is going to happen to Tsar Nicolas the II? 8. Who killed the Romanov royal family?

28 Finish these sentences Finish these sentences Things that Russia is known for are… Things that Russia is known for are… A Tsar is … A Tsar is … A gulag in Siberia…. A gulag in Siberia…. The Bolsheviks… The Bolsheviks… Karl Marx… Karl Marx… Communism… Communism… The proletariat… The proletariat… Vladimir Lenin… Vladimir Lenin… Capitalism … Capitalism … Communism…. Communism….

29 CapitalismCommunism (socialism) Individuals (private citizens) own the companies i.e. people own Apple, Facebook, Nike, Coca Cola, Southwest Airlines, McDonalds, apartment complexes, thousands of acres of farmland, basically everything Individuals (private citizens) own the companies i.e. people own Apple, Facebook, Nike, Coca Cola, Southwest Airlines, McDonalds, apartment complexes, thousands of acres of farmland, basically everything Private individuals own the housing so people have to pay rent or buy Private individuals own the housing so people have to pay rent or buy Private citizens own the hospitals or insurance companies so you have to pay for healthcare Private citizens own the hospitals or insurance companies so you have to pay for healthcare Many schools are private - Harvard, Stanford, Brophy so students have to pay thousands in tuition Many schools are private - Harvard, Stanford, Brophy so students have to pay thousands in tuition Banks loan money so you can borrow “capital” to start your own business and make millions Banks loan money so you can borrow “capital” to start your own business and make millions Critics say the rich influence lawmakers to stay rich Critics say the rich influence lawmakers to stay rich Capitalism There are Winners (rich) Losers (poor) Capitalism There are Winners (rich) Losers (poor) Probably not fair – but still almost anyone can work hard and do well Probably not fair – but still almost anyone can work hard and do well Think of all the choices in the cereal aisle in an American grocery store – Think of all the choices in the cereal aisle in an American grocery store – in a communist country (Cuba) there might be only white boxes that read “Corn Flakes” in a communist country (Cuba) there might be only white boxes that read “Corn Flakes” The Government controls all the land, mining, transportation, factories, restaurants, hotels, - everything The Government controls all the land, mining, transportation, factories, restaurants, hotels, - everything workers work for the government workers work for the government Government owns all housing so no one is homeless Government owns all housing so no one is homeless Government owns all the hospitals – free healthcare Government owns all the hospitals – free healthcare Government controls all schools – free tuition Government controls all schools – free tuition No banks, no advertising, no commercials because no one is trying to become rich No banks, no advertising, no commercials because no one is trying to become rich you can’t own your own company and then create a chain of stores to become rich you can’t own your own company and then create a chain of stores to become rich No one is motivated to become rich so they don’t make thousands of stores – so there aren’t lots of things to buy No one is motivated to become rich so they don’t make thousands of stores – so there aren’t lots of things to buy Communism- Everyone is Equal. Equally Poor Communism- Everyone is Equal. Equally Poor Criticism: In communism the government controls everything including the media so it can lie, propagandize and control what people see and hear through the media Criticism: In communism the government controls everything including the media so it can lie, propagandize and control what people see and hear through the media Also, with no competition it doesn’t have to make a good product because there is no other choice – so communist countries are not known for making good products Also, with no competition it doesn’t have to make a good product because there is no other choice – so communist countries are not known for making good products

30 1. What kinds of people might like the Communism? 2. Who would hate communism? 3. What is bad about capitalism? 4. What is good about communism? 5. True or false – rich landlord farmers controlled thousands of acres of land and millions of peasants did not own their own land 6. Why might landless peasant farmers like the idea of communism? 7. What could be bad about communism?

31 How do farmers get paid in a capitalistic country? How do farmers get paid in a capitalistic country? How would farmers in a communistic country get paid? How would farmers in a communistic country get paid?

32 Stores Capitalist country Capitalist country Communist country (Cuba) Communist country (Cuba)

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37 There was little demand for Russian goods

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39 Think of different companies that compete against each other My example: My example: What makes each of them try to make a good product What makes each of them try to make a good product

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42 1.What are some problems with communism in general (what sucks about it)? 2. Think of countries that had communism (USSR, China, Cuba, and North Korea) what are some specific things that sucked about living in those countries under communism? 3. What happened to writers or vocal people who openly criticized communism or the communist government? 4. What would happen if a small group of 100 people protested for change in these countries? 5. What might happen if 100,000 people did a demonstration for change in these countries? 6. Why did communist governments have a censored controlled media (newspapers, radio, and TV)? 7. What do you think happened in communist countries where they relaxed censorship and allowed people to watch the news, TV and movies from non-communist countries?

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44 Closing Activity: complete these sentences Closing Activity: complete these sentences A gulag in Siberia…. A gulag in Siberia…. The Bolsheviks… The Bolsheviks… Karl Marx… Karl Marx… Communism… Communism… Vladimir Lenin… Vladimir Lenin… Capitalism … Capitalism … A criticism of Capitalism is …. A criticism of Capitalism is …. In a comunist country the media… In a comunist country the media… A criticism of Communism is …. A criticism of Communism is …. Communism pretty much died because…. Communism pretty much died because….

45 Vladimir LENIN : leader of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution brought Communism to Russia - The country then became the Soviet Union

46 Bolshevik slogan “Peace, land and bread”

47 What happened to Lenin’s brother? What happened to Lenin’s brother? What book did Lenin read that influenced him? What book did Lenin read that influenced him? Why do you think that he was sent to Siberia? Why do you think that he was sent to Siberia? What year was Tsar Nicolas forced to give up his throne? What year was Tsar Nicolas forced to give up his throne? Who do you think was fighting in the Russian civil war? Who do you think was fighting in the Russian civil war? What was Lenin trying to do during his last years? What was Lenin trying to do during his last years? How long did Lenin rule? How long did Lenin rule? Why do you think communists from around the world respect Lenin? Why do you think communists from around the world respect Lenin?

48 LENINSTALIN bald bald 1 st dictator of the Soviet Union 1 st dictator of the Soviet Union Ruled for 5 years ( ) Ruled for 5 years ( ) Smart and respected by communists Smart and respected by communists Led the overthrow and execution of the Czar Led the overthrow and execution of the Czar Ruled and won the Russian Civil War Ruled and won the Russian Civil War Secret police killed thousands and sent thousands to Siberia Secret police killed thousands and sent thousands to Siberia Highly respected by communists around the world – thousands of statues – body embalmed and displayed in Moscow Highly respected by communists around the world – thousands of statues – body embalmed and displayed in Moscow hair hair 2 nd dictator 2 nd dictator ruled 25 years ( ) ruled 25 years ( ) Tricky, manipulative and feared by all in his country Tricky, manipulative and feared by all in his country Industrialized and modernized Russia Industrialized and modernized Russia Forced starvation on own people Forced starvation on own people Secret police killed millions sent millions to Siberia Secret police killed millions sent millions to Siberia Defeated Hitler in W.W.II Defeated Hitler in W.W.II Some consider him great because he made Russia a world power Some consider him great because he made Russia a world power Others consider him be the most evil man in history Others consider him be the most evil man in history

49 Finish these sentences Finish these sentences Some people think Stalin was good for Russia because…. Some people think Stalin was good for Russia because…. Posters were everywhere in Russia because… Posters were everywhere in Russia because… Collectivization is.. Collectivization is.. Many farmers were killed under Stalin because… Many farmers were killed under Stalin because… Many people starved to death under Stalin because… Many people starved to death under Stalin because… Stalin’s purges were… Stalin’s purges were…

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51 Collectivization Taking individual family farms away from the owners and making them Taking individual family farms away from the owners and making them Government Farms Government Farms

52 Modernize - Industrialize Modernize: To make and use modern technology Modernize: To make and use modern technology Industrialize: to build factories and begin using machines and new technology Industrialize: to build factories and begin using machines and new technology

53 From this to this

54 Stalin and The USSR defeated Hitler and Nazi Germany in WWII

55 From backward peasants to World Power

56 Totalitarian governments: governments that control all aspects of society

57 1 one Political Party or Idea 1 one Political Party or Idea 2. one leader whose picture and statue is everywhere 2. one leader whose picture and statue is everywhere 3. Mass Propaganda: biased or one-sided information constantly spit out by the government 4. Government Controlled Media – newspapers, radio, tv, school books, art 4. Government Controlled Media – newspapers, radio, tv, school books, art 5. Indoctrination (brainwashing) of their doctrines at school and work and on the news 5. Indoctrination (brainwashing) of their doctrines at school and work and on the news 6. Posters promoting the governments’ agenda are everywhere 6. Posters promoting the governments’ agenda are everywhere 7. Govt. drives the economy – decides what to make – usually weapons 7. Govt. drives the economy – decides what to make – usually weapons 8. All movies, books, music and art must glorify the governments’ agenda 8. All movies, books, music and art must glorify the governments’ agenda 9. Secret police and spies are everywhere looking for “enemies of the country” 9. Secret police and spies are everywhere looking for “enemies of the country” 10. prisons, labor camps, reprogramming or “concentration” camps where people are sent to “re-program” their thinking 10. prisons, labor camps, reprogramming or “concentration” camps where people are sent to “re-program” their thinking

58 Gulags (prisons, labor/concentration camps) in Siberia

59 Closing Activity: complete these sentences Closing Activity: complete these sentences 5 year plans …. 5 year plans …. Some Russians say Stalin was great because….. Some Russians say Stalin was great because….. Collectivization is….. Collectivization is….. Farmers in the Ukraine starved because….. Farmers in the Ukraine starved because….. The “Purges”…. The “Purges”…. The “Show Trials” were…… The “Show Trials” were…… Stalin killed more Russian officers ….. Stalin killed more Russian officers …..

60 Joseph ( Djugashvili ) STALIN (man of Steel)

61 STALIN: made Lenin like a god and created the myth that he and Lenin were tight

62 Finish these sentences Finish these sentences The Bolsheviks... The Bolsheviks... Vladimir Lenin… Vladimir Lenin… A totalitarian country is…. A totalitarian country is…. One characteristics of a totalitarian country is…. One characteristics of a totalitarian country is…. Propaganda… Propaganda… A Controlled Media… A Controlled Media… Secret police… Secret police… Joseph Stalin… Joseph Stalin…

63 Atheist: NO God materialist- everything is “matter” there’s no soul –no heaven-no God Atheist: NO God materialist- everything is “matter” there’s no soul –no heaven-no God AGNOSTIC: Just don’t know AGNOSTIC: Just don’t know Karl Marx had written that Karl Marx had written that “religion is the opiate of the masses” “religion is the opiate of the masses” In other words; religion was a drug to make people forget their worldly problems. In other words; religion was a drug to make people forget their worldly problems. People need to be stirred up, mad want Revolution People need to be stirred up, mad want Revolution Most communists were atheists Most communists were atheists Believers were heavily persecuted Believers were heavily persecuted Closed and destroyed churches Closed and destroyed churches Thousands of priests sent to concentration camps or shot Thousands of priests sent to concentration camps or shot Brainwashed kids Brainwashed kids Against the law to teach kids about God Against the law to teach kids about God Anti- religious posters Anti- religious posters “Red” weddings/funerals “Red” weddings/funerals

64 Examples of Soviet Art (Socialist Realism)

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67 KGB: Russian spies and secret police CIA: spies from the USA

68 Romanov Tsars: Romanov is the royal family of Russia Romanov is the royal family of Russia Tsars are the kings of Russia Tsars are the kings of Russia

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71 Finish these sentences Finish these sentences ges were… ges were…

72 Totalitarian governments: governments that control all aspects of both public and private life Ultra-nationalistic or super committed to one ideology Ultra-nationalistic or super committed to one ideology one leader whose posters are everywhere one leader whose posters are everywhere Goals are always to better the country; if you are against that person then you are against the country Goals are always to better the country; if you are against that person then you are against the country Expects the people to sacrifice their desires for the good of the country Expects the people to sacrifice their desires for the good of the country Mass Propaganda: constant biased or one-sided information. No opposing views tolerated Mass Propaganda: constant biased or one-sided information. No opposing views tolerated (Government Controlled Media) (Government Controlled Media) Indoctrination (brainwashing) of their doctrines at school and work Indoctrination (brainwashing) of their doctrines at school and work All film, literature, music and art must glorify the governments’ agenda All film, literature, music and art must glorify the governments’ agenda Secret police are always looking for people against the government Secret police are always looking for people against the government ½ simply disappear the other ½ sent to concentration camps or “reprogamming” labor camps (Gulags) ½ simply disappear the other ½ sent to concentration camps or “reprogamming” labor camps (Gulags) Spies and snitches are everywhere Spies and snitches are everywhere Usually militaristic (training soldiers) and many goals are using military means to gain land Usually militaristic (training soldiers) and many goals are using military means to gain land Religious or Ethnic persecution Religious or Ethnic persecution

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