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By Alyssa Branning Logan Bush Tyler Reed Travis Nunn.

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2 By Alyssa Branning Logan Bush Tyler Reed Travis Nunn

3  Nile River is 4000 miles long  Southern Egypt is called upper because it is located up river  Northern Egypt is called lower because it’s located downriver  Cataracts are strong rapids located at some points along the Nile  The Nile is divided into branches called a delta or a triangle shaped area of land made of soil deposited by a river  Swamps and marshes used to cover the Nile delta  Two thirds of Egypt's fertile farmland are located along the Nile delta

4  Egypt had a flood along the Nile once a year from rainfall  The floods of the Nile were easy to predict  Upper Egypt flooded in midsummer and lower Egypt flooded in the fall covering land with rich silt  The silt made the farmland a dark color and that’s why its known as the black land  The floods were a miracle, if Egypt didn’t have them they couldn’t have settled there

5  Hunter gather groups moved to the Nile valley more than 12000 years ago  They ate plants, wild animals, and fish  Farmers in Mesopotamia developed irrigation systems and they built canals to use in the dry months and to transport it to were it was needed  The Nile provided Egyptian farmers with their food  Egypt was hard to invade because of the desert was to harsh and too big  The Red Sea also made it difficult to invade Egypt  By 3200 B.C the villages had developed into two kingdoms  One was upper Egypt the other lower Egypt

6  The king of lower Egypt ruled from a town called Pe  He wore a red crown to symbolize his authority  The capital of upper Egypt was Nekhen  The king had a cone shaped white crown  Menes rose to power in upper Egypt in 3100 B.C  He wanted to unify upper and lower Egypt  Menes took control of lower Egypt; he married the princess of lower Egypt to strengthen his control  He combined the white and red crowns

7  Pharaoh was the title used by Egypt's rulers (Menes was considered the first)  Dynasty is a series of rulers from the same family ( Menes founded the first dynasty)  Menes built a capital called Memphis it was the center of Egypt political and cultural wise (many government offices were there and artistic activity)  The first dynasty lasted about 200years  Rivals appeared and took over; becoming the second dynasty  Pharaohs after Menes wore the double crown and they extended Egypt upward along the Nile and into southwest Asia

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