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Warm-Up What does annexation mean? Texas was later annexed into the United States.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up What does annexation mean? Texas was later annexed into the United States."— Presentation transcript:


2 Warm-Up What does annexation mean?

3 Texas was later annexed into the United States

4 Treaty of Velasco (treaty that ended the war)

5 THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Public Terms 1. The war between Mexico and Texas was officially ended, and Texas was declared independent. 2. Santa Anna would not take up arms against Texas. 3. All Mexican forces would withdraw beyond the Rio Grande. 4. Prisoners would be exchanged. 5. Mexico would return all captured property. 6. Texas leaders would promptly return Santa Anna to Mexico.

6 Results of the Election of 1836 Vice President:Congress:President: Constitution:Annexation: The Early Republic Mirabeau B. Lamarelected senators and representatives Sam Houston approved the Texas Constitution of 1836 voted to seek U.S. annexation of Texas

7 Sam Houston’s Inaugural Address - 1836 “[We] modestly remonstrated against oppression, and, when invaded by a numerous host, we dared to proclaim our independence and to strike for freedom on the breast of the oppressor. As yet our course is onward. We are only in the outset of the campaign of liberty.”

8 Houston was cautious. He tried to prevent another war with Mexico or with Native Texans. Houston limited government spending. Houston thought the best solution to Texas’s problems was annexation to the United States. Houston’s well appointed cabinet helped him with these problems. (Stephen F. Austin served as secretary of state.) Cabinet – council that advises the chief executive

9 Initially, Columbia, a small town in Brazoria County, was declared the capital city. Two brothers, John and Augustus Allen, planned on building a new town near Harrisburg, which had been burned during the Revolution. ◦ They named this town Houston, after Sam. Houston remained the capital of Texas throughout Houston’s first administration, even though people complained about the conditions in this town. ◦ It was muddy, hot, and had simple log structures, etc.

10 One of the biggest problems in the new Republic was the lack of money. When Sam Houston began his presidency, Texas was in debt over $1 million. Houston held government expenses to a minimum and tried to raise revenue only for items that were absolutely necessary. Revenue – annual or current income of the government

11 Texas not only had conflicts with Mexico but also the Native Texans. Remember, the Native Texans were promised by Houston the title to their land they occupied in East Texas. The Texas Congress refused to uphold this treaty (promise) Houston had agreed upon.

12 Many Texans wanted the Native Texans out because the land they occupied was the richest farmland in Texas. Houston, unlike most Texans, was sympathetic to the Native Texans. The Texas Rangers had to be called in to patrol the frontier. Attacks on both sides continued.

13 ELECTION OF 1838 President Houston had to hand over the government in 1838 when he lost to Lamar Vice-President Lamar remained popular by the Texas people and was elected as the second president of the Republic of Texas.

14 HOUSTON was bold liked flashy clothing worked on keeping peace with Mexico and the Native Texans. spent little money promoted annexation of Texas to the U.S. liked quiet reading did not shy away from conflicts with Mexico and the Native Texans. wanted to get rid Texas of ALL Native Texans spent LARGE sums of borrowed money on military expeditions wanted Texas to remain independent and expand its borders LAMAR

15 Lamar’s aggressive approach to Texas’s policies was obvious in his 1838 inaugural address: ◦ “If peace can be obtained only by the sword, let the sword do its work.”

16 Unlike Houston, Lamar wanted to kill or force all of the Native Texans out of Texas. Lamar’s generals forced the Cherokees out of East Texas. ◦ The Cherokees went to live in present-day Oklahoma.

17 Lamar is best known for his contributions to public education. Lamar believed that a strong educational system would make Texas a great nation. The Texas Congress set aside almost 18,000 acres of land in each county for public schools. Although few schools were actually build during Lamar’s administration, he became known as the “FATHER EDUCATION IN TEXAS”.

18 Texas’s financial problem got worse during Lamar’s presidency. Lamar expanded the use of bills known as “redbacks”. ◦ They were called “redbacks” because of the color of ink that was used. The redbacks went down in value. Lamar spent money on battles that he didn’t have. Public debt increased to almost $7 million by the end of Lamar’s term. Public debt – amount of money a national government owes

19 Photo from

20 Lamar vs. Houston Republic of Texas Presidential Elections 1838 Choose either Mirabeau Lamar or Sam Houston as your pick for the president of the New Texas Republic and create a campaign flyer supporting that candidate. Use the chart on the back and your notes to help you figure out how each candidate feels about specific campaign issues. Use the space below to draw your campaign flyer. Your official poster must include: -An specific issue (Native Americans, annexation) (20 pts) -Show how the candidate feels about the issue (15 pts) -A clear bias towards one candidate (15 pts) -Creativity/Neatness (20 pts) -Color/Pictures (30 pts)

21 Flyer examples

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