Presentation on theme: "Major Belief Systems by 1000 C.E. Polytheism Origin: Earliest religions - all cultural regions Doctrine: none as such – but Epic of Gilgamesh, Egyptian."— Presentation transcript:
Major Belief Systems by 1000 C.E. Polytheism Origin: Earliest religions - all cultural regions Doctrine: none as such – but Epic of Gilgamesh, Egyptian Book of the Dead,, Iliad and Odyssey Tenets: Many gods; spirits; gods as personification of nature, animism Significance: first organized system of religion; examples – Sumerian, Greek Aztec, Roman, African, Vedic Hinduism; modern – African, S. American Judaism Origin: Middle East, Hebrews; monotheism Tenets: One God; covenant w/ chosen people; Torah, Ten Commandments; Mosaic Law, and Talmud; earliest written materials circa 900 BCE Significance: monotheism; influence on Christianity and Islam; no widespread hierarchical structure; modern-day Israel as a Jewish state Hinduism Origin: India, Mix of Indus R. and Aryan religions c 1700 BCE, earliest religious writings (Vedas); changes polytheism to monotheism from 600 BCE – 300 CE – Upanishads, and epic poems - Baghavad Gita and Ramayana; Tenets: Brahman is ultimate reality; rebirth determined by dharma and karma; release of soul (atman) from cycle of reincarnation to become one with Brahman Significance: no founder, tolerant of other religions, few formal beliefs, adaptable, meditation and ritual; creation of caste system – social system determined by birth (priest, warrior, merchant, laborer) – do dharma well, accumulate good karma, move up in caste system Islam Origin: Middle East (Arabia); Muhammad is prophet of God (died 622 CE) Tenets: Monotheism (Allah); Jesus and Jewish prophets accepted; Five Pillars – faith, prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca; Qur’an is holy book Significance: spilt into Sunni and Shia over political differences; Sharia – legal code; ;no hierarchical structure; Dar-al-Islam – lands of Islam (Arabic, Middle Eastern customs, etc.), not monastic, Sufi mystics as missionaries; Jews and Christians as “Peoples of the Book” Christianity Origin: Middle East, derived from Judaism, New Testament (gospels, letters of apostles), teachings of Jesus (died 30 CE), writings of Paul Tenets: Jesus as God – Jewish Messiah, salvation through God’s grace, sins forgiven, Gospels earliest writings Significance: at first persecuted, later as state religion of Roman Empire, monastic, missionaries, organized – Roman Catholic and Orthodox Catholic, power of RC papacy rivals that of European kings Confucianism Origin: China, circa 6 th century BCE, founder – Confucius, major disciple Mencius (350 BCE) Doctrine: The Analects Tenets: humanness, social roles (Husband –wife; Parent-child, Brother-brother, friend- friend, Ruler-subject), honoring elders – ancestor worship, family as extension of state, only educated should govern Significance: ethical system of conduct, dominant influence in Chinese gov’t and education for 2000 years, civil service system, public right to overthrow gov’t based on loss of Mandate of Heaven Daoism Origin: China, circa 6 th century BCE, Lao Tze Doctrine: Tao te Ching Tenets: Tao (Dao) = The Way, natural approach, live in accord with one’s nature, passive – don’t try to control things, interaction of yin and yang Significance: popular with peasants – polytheism, interest in nature – influence on art, seek immortality leads to development of compass and gunpowder. Buddhism Origin: India, Founder – Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha), comes from Hinduism circa 6 th century BCE Tenets: Four Noble Truths – all of life is suffering, suffering caused by desires, to stop suffering – stop desires, to stop desires follow Eightfold Path; no gods, karma and reincarnation to achieve nirvana – release Significance: monastic tradition, missionaries, spread from India to S.E. Asia (Theravada – strict following of Buddha’s teaching – monastic) and E. Asia; (Mahayana – more open to everyone, less strict); dies out in India
Eastern European Trade Goods: furs, wood, amber, grain, slaves, wine, perfume, glass, silk (from Byzantine Empire) Trade Routes: River routes from Europe (Danube) and Kievan Russia Significance: safe route away from Mediterranean (pirates, Muslims), spread of Orthodox Christianity to Russia, Byzantine influence on Russian art, religion, architecture Major Trade Routes, Circa 1000 C.E. Trans-Saharan Africa Trade Goods: gold, ivory, slaves, and spices from Sub-Sahara; salt, cloth, metal ware from N. Africa and Sahara Trade Routes: caravan routes N-S across Sahara Significance: rise of W. African empires, spread of Islam Dar-al-Islam Trade Goods: carpets, linens, ceramics from Abbasid; silk and porcelain from China; rubies, silver, ebony, dyestuffs from India; trinkets and slaves from Byzantine Empire; ivory and slaves from Africa, spices from S.E. Asia Trade Routes: connected to Silk Roads, Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan Significance: Spread of Islam, assimilating and adapting artistic styles, scientific and intellectual achievements, spread of technology from China, Swahili (in connection with E. Africa) Indian Ocean Trade Goods: slaves, ivory, gold, iron from Africa; porcelain, silks from China; pottery from Burma; cloth and pepper from India; spices from S.E. Asia (Spice Islands) Trade Routes: waterborne; followed seasonal – half yearly wind patterns called monsoons; regional – Arabia and India to and from E. Africa; S.E. Asia to India Significance: source of most major spices; Swahili – mix of Arabic and Bantu languages; Swahili city-states (Mogadishu, Sofala, Kilwa, etc.); spread of Islam to S.E. Asia (Indonesia); spread of foods – sugarcane from China, banana from Indonesia to Africa Silk Roads Trade Goods: Silk, porcelain from China, horses from steppe nomads Trade Routes: overland from China to Mediterranean (Persia / Byzantine Empire) Significance: Spread of Buddhism (from India), Christianity, and Islam to Central Asia and China; technology transfers from China to the west Mediterranean Sea Trade Goods: furs, wood, amber, grain, slaves, wine, perfume, glass, silk (from Byzantine Empire) Trade Routes: along edges and across seaways; Roman Empire roads Significance: Greek colony city-states, cleared of pirates for several hundred y ears (Roman Empire), spread of Christianity and cultural elements of Egypt Greece, and Rome, later Islam
Comparing Developments 600 – 1000 CE Mesoamerica Who: Maya What: Height and decline of their civilization Significance: at 600 CE the Maya had dozens of city-states; fighting for farmland and for sacrificial victims for polytheistic religion; in 800s Chichen-Itza attempted to build an empire but failed; civilization decline due to climate changes, fighting over resources, etc. Sub-Saharan Africa Who: West Africa – Ghana Empire / East Africa – Swahili City-States What: development of political units controlling trade Significance: While much of the region remained stateless, empires developed to control the gold-salt trade of west Africa and city-states developed to take advantage of the Indian Ocean trade; exports included slaves, ivory, gold; imports included salt (W. Africa), cotton textiles, East Africa – spices, silks, porcelain; for both regions – the spread of Islam greatly influenced politics and culture. Middle East Who: Abbasid dynasty What: development and spread of Islam Significance: The prophet Muhammad will develop Islam as a monotheistic religion; Arabs (Bedouins - Arab nomads) conquer Persia and then the eastern Byzantine empire territories and spread across N. Africa to Spain; Abbasid dynasty will control territory from Egypt, the eastern Med, Persia and across Central Asia to the Silk Roads; flowering of Islamic culture; translation and expansion of Greek science and philosophy; Jews and Christians as people of the Book; control of trade routes and improved commerce tools leads to prosperity; new foods introduced to Mediterranean Eastern Europe Who: Byzantine Empire What: only empire to survive the classical era Significance: with its capital at Constantinople, the empire controls the Black Sea trade; strong government structure; Justinian’s Law Code; Eastern Orthodox religion; on and off war with Persian empire will weaken it; will lose territory along eastern and northern Mediterranean to Islamic armies; East Asia Who: Tang and Song Dynasty What: new dynasties in China – political and cultural expansion Significance: The Tang Dynasty (619 – 907) and the Song Dynasty (970 – 1279) will reunify China; cultural developments include gunpowder, printing press, compass, paper money; Grand Canal links south and north; two crop rice from Vietnam and improved agriculture – population explosion; vast urbanization; new types of pottery (porcelain); Tang Dynasty stops spread of Buddhism although it remain s popular; Neo-Confucianism; improvements in civil service exams and strengthening of Confucian bureaucracy. Western Europe Who: remains of Roman Empire What: western empire collapsed because of Germanic invasions leaving the Roman Catholic Church as the only institution with political / cultural control Significance: Roman Catholic Church works to convert German tribes to Catholicism and away from paganism and Arianism.; alliance with Franks leads to development of Carolingian empire and strengthening of Church; monasteries; Viking raids and settlement;; development of feudalism and manorialism
Major Cities of the World to 1500 Tenochtitlan (Aztec) Founded: (c) 1450 Economic: huge market place, chinampas (floating gardens) Political: capital of Aztec Empire (decentralized, tribute based) Significance: built after Aztec migrated to Lake Texcoco; over 300,000 people, temples to gods (ritual human sacrifices); conquered by Spanish in 1520 Cuzco (Inca) Founded: (c) 12 th century Economic: not a large marketplace – little commerce in empire; storehouse for collected tribute goods (cloth, foodstuffs, etc. – often redistributed to villages in need) Political: capital of Inca Empire (centralized, ruled through governors, tribute based) Significance: Temple of the Sun; center of state religion; thousands of workers from villages (mita tax); connected to empire through vast road/bridge network Timbuktu (Mali; Songhai) Founded: (c) 11 th century Economic: Trans-Saharan trade route – exchanging gold, ivory, and slaves for salt and other goods from north; Political: Administrative city for Mali, Songhai empires Significance: major cultural/commercial center of Mali and Songhai; center of Islamic learning; University of Sankore; libraries Venice (Italy) Founded: (c) 9 th century CE as Republic of St. Mark Economic: trade with Byzantium, then with Islamic empires, controlled Silk Roads / Spice trade into Europe Political: independent city-state; oligarchy of merchant families; Roman Catholic; women as assistants and helpmates; often had treaties with Islamic empires for trade and to avoid sacking Significance: built on marshy lands; canals; benefitted greatly from Crusades (financed effort to take over Constantinople in 4 th Crusade); produces fine glassware Samarkand / Samarqand Founded: (c) 3000 BCE Economic: major city on Silk Roads; silk and other goods from China, grapes, cotton, and other food goods from other trading partners Political: part of various Islamic empires; Abbasid regional capital in 800s; major Mongol city; Tamerlane’s capital in 14 th and 15 th centuries; declined with loss of trade and political power Significance: important trade stop along Silk Roads; trading of technology and religions Guangzhou (later Canton) Founded: (c) 3 rd century CE Economic: Trade w/ western empires through Arab and Persian intermediaries; silk, spices, tea; trade with Islamic and Hindu merchants by 1000 CE, 1500s – first Chinese seaport to trade directly with Europeans; restricted by Qing as only port for Europeans until Opium Wars in 1848 Political: part of most of Chinese dynasties Significance: huge population (up to 1 million), single port of entry for Europeans until 1848
Comparing the Decolonization Process Belgian Congo / Democratic Republic of Congo Former Colony of Belgium Process to independence: removed as personal fiefdom of King Leopold II of Belgium in 1908 because of brutality Belgium colony – reforms instituted including education Rebellions in late 1950s Belgians bow to world opinion & violence Independence in 1960 Kenya Former Colony of Great Britain Process to independence: Mau Mau, secret organization, bloody campaign against British rule British military response is brutal repression British bow to pressure Independence in 1960 Gold Coast / Ghana Former Colony of Britain Process to independence: Strikes, protests by nationalists in 50s Gradual independence – constitution but British control foreign policy, defense, economy, law demands for complete freedom Independence in 1957 French Indochina / Vietnam Former Colony of France Process to independence: Occupied by Japanese in WW II Declaration of independence in 1945 Reoccupation by French French-IndoChinese War Partitioned by Geneva Conference into Communist North and non-Communist South Overthrow of president in 1963, Vietcong (communists) insurgency throughout 60s, Vietnam War with U.S. support of South 1959 – 1975 Communist Vietnam declared in 1976 Morocco Former protectorate of France and Spain Process to independence: Divided and under protectorate status in 1912 Rebel fighting throughout 1920s and 30s Heavy fighting in WW II Open warfare on French from 1947 onward French withdraw in 1955 Independence in 1956 Spanish area returned in 1969 Burma / Myanmar Former Colony of Britain Process to independence: province of British India rebellions in 1930s crown colony in 1938 sided with British in WW II Independence in 1948 India Former Colony of Britain Process to independence: Sepoy Mutiny – 1857, made crown colony Indian National Congress / Muslim League provide input to governing – 1880s Aided British in WW I – promised independence – didn’t happen Gandhi's non-violent resistance (boycotting British goods, taxes, etc.) Aid British in WW II Independence in 1949 Split into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India
Comparing Migrations (19 th & early 20 th centuries) Irish From: Ireland To: North America (United States mostly) Push: lack of farmland to own (farmland was owned by British – farmed w/ cheap labor by Irish), Famine (potato disease Pull: Economic opportunities, political freedom, farmland Significance: much of labor for early canals (Erie Canal, etc.) and railroads in East came from Ireland. Over 1,000,000 immigrants between 1854 and 1864, many in North fought in Civil War, political power in major cities (New York, Boston) ; Roman Catholic Italians From: Italy and Sicily To: South America (Brazil, Argentina) Push: lack of economic opportunities, drought Pull: Economic opportunities – at first mostly on plantations, then urban Significance: after abolition of slavery, plantations needed cheap labor, used “salesmen” to convince Italian men to migrate to Brazil and Argentina to work on plantations, many stayed; golondrinas (swallows) migrated between S. America and Europe to take advantage of opposite growing seasons; up to 4 million migrated in 1880s and 1890s; contributed to cosmopolitanism of cities like Buenos Aries To: Canada, Hawaii America, Peru Asians From: China and Japan To: North America and South America Push: Pull: Economic opportunities – laborers on railroads, plantations, gold rush (California), mining Significance: A million or more Chinese and several hundred thousand Japanese migrated in the mid to late 19 th century; provided indentured labor on plantations, and in mining; railroad labor in U.S. and Canada; in U.S. and Canada – Chinatowns with their own urban economic opportunities; sparked a backlash in both countries – in 1880s limited Asian immigration; more than half population of Hawaii is Asian or Asian descent by early 1900s. Europeans From: Ireland, Scotland, Germany, Scandinavia / later from Southern Europe, Russia, Poles, Slavs, Jews To: North America Push: increasing rents and indebtedness Pull: Farmland Significance: almost 3 million immigrants, mostly to the United States – Midwest; most sought farmland; others stayed in Eastern cities to become part of new industrial workforce; labor was a major part of U.S. industrialization efforts. Other significant migrations in this timeframe: English and Scottish forced migration to Australia – criminals, debtors, etc.; created “Australia” as we know it; farmland, sheep, etc. Indian and Sri Lankan (Ceylonese) indentured servants to the Caribbean and to Madagascar to work on sugar plantations; created separate enclaves of their traditional societies Urbanization – rural to urban as countries industrialized
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