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1 st Quarter Final Study Guide Burnette & Davis Social Studies 7 Fall 2013.

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1 1 st Quarter Final Study Guide Burnette & Davis Social Studies 7 Fall 2013

2 1. Between which two rivers can you find Mesopotamia? Tigris & Euphrates

3 2. What is the area of rich farmland called in this region? The Fertile Crescent

4 3. Why did people settle in this region between the rivers? The rivers provided rich silt deposits for farming.

5 4. Describe how settlement in Mesopotamia developed. First, people settled where crops could grow. Then, the population grew. Lastly, villages and cities formed.

6 5. Why did people come to work as craftsmen? Because of division of labor

7 6. Why did Mesopotamians build canals? They needed a way to control the river’s flow.

8 7. Describe how civilization developed. If people had a steady food supply (through farming), they can build a complex society.

9 8. Why did city-states fight each other for farmland? They wanted enough farmland to grow food and feed their people.

10 9. Who was the first leader to have a permanent army? Sargon

11 10. Why did city-states have walls around them? To protect the people inside from an attack.

12 11. Whose job was it to serve between the Sumerians and the gods? priests

13 12. If scribes had power in Sumerian society, what is one inference you can make? People who could read and write were very important.

14 13. Describe cuneiform A form of writing using wedge-shaped symbols

15 14. In what ways did Sumerians practice medicine? They recorded their observations They used natural resources They were skilled at using figs, milk, and salt

16 15. What are ziggurats? Why are they so tall? Ziggurats are large, pyramid-shaped temple- towers. They were tall to honor the gods.

17 16. What is a cylinder seal? What is it used for? A cylinder seal is like a stamp with symbols on it. It was rolled onto wet clay. It was used to mark property and sign documents.

18 17. What was the first conquering group to rule after Hammurabi? The Hittites

19 18. For what resource was Phoenicia well-known? Cedar wood

20 19. Which later group of people were more powerful from trade rather than conquest? The Phoenicians

21 20. What physical feature led the Phoenicians to trade by sea? Mountains to the north and east

22 21. What technology did Hittites and Assyrians use in battle? Iron weapons and chariots

23 22. What kind of political unit was Carthage? A trade colony for Phoenicia

24 23. What do Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar have in common? They both built up Babylon

25 24. What was the relationship between trade and the spread of the Phoenician alphabet? The Phoenician alphabet spread over trade routes.

26 25. What factor may have limited the growth of Sargon’s Empire? The Syrian desert was a harsh environment with not enough good farmland

27 26. What are historians interested in studying? The knowledge, beliefs, and customs of groups of people

28 27. What is culture? The beliefs, customs, and art of a group of people

29 28. What is a primary document? Give examples A primary document is written by someone who took part in or witnessed an event. Examples are: diaries & journals, laws, treaties, autobiographies

30 29. Captains, Kings, Saints, Fanatics, Traitors, Villains… …and heroes are all… People who make history

31 30. How did the invention of tools affect humans? They increased the chances for survival.

32 31. For what reason did language develop? To make hunting easier, to form new relationships, and to resolve issues like distributing food.

33 32. Why did people have to make clothes and build shelter as they migrated out of Africa? They needed more protection to survive in colder areas.

34 33. Describe what happened in the Neolithic Revolution. A shift from food gathering to food producing

35 34. How did farming impact people in the New Stone Age? It allowed people to build permanent settlements.

36 35. Describe the connection between farming and the growth of towns. Farming helped establish permanent settlements. People settled where crops would grow, and the population grew.

37 36. List the order of settlement of the continents, starting with Africa. Africa, Europe & Asia, Australia, North America, South America

38 37. What allowed people to migrate from Asia to North America? A land bridge over the Bering Strait

39 38. How did the Ice Age affect early humans? Early humans were forced to move to new environments.

40 39. What is a legend? What information might you find on it? A legend tells what symbols are on the map. It tells about physical and human features.

41 40. How are degrees latitude measured? Degrees NORTH or Degrees SOUTH of the equator

42 41. How are degrees longitude measured? Degrees EAST or Degrees WEST of the Prime Meridian.

43 42. What is the order of coordinates? Latitude, Longitude

44 43. What is absolute location? Using lines of latitude and longitude (coordinates) or an address to find an exact location on the earth.

45 44. What is relative location? Telling where something is in relation to something else.

46 45. Describe a Mercator Projection. A rectangle map where lines of latitude are spaced out closer to the poles, stretching out the image of land in the polar regions. Shape is correct, but size is distorted.

47 46. Describe a Robinson Projection An oval map projection where latitude lines stay the same distance apart, but longitude lines curve outward from the Prime Meridian. Shapes and sizes show the least distortion.

48 47. Which projection is preferred by geographers? Why? Robinson – It shows the least distortions in size, shape, and distance.

49 48. What is the difference between physical and human geography? Physical = what is on the earth’s landscape (mountains, lakes, deserts, plains) Human = cultural, political, and economic characteristics of the people

50 49. What are examples of H.E.I.? Building cities, farming, mining… Anything where people are changing the environment for their benefit.

51 50. In which two hemispheres would you find Bowling Green, KY? Northern and Western

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