2Changing Landscape Activities affect environment Relationship between resources and sustainable use
3Effect of Human Activity Living on Island EarthWe affect environment when:Obtain foodEliminate waste productsBuild places to liveHumans impact regional and global environments:AgricultureDevelopmentIndustryWhich impact natural resources such as soil, water and the atmosphere.
4Effect of Human Activity AgricultureDependable supply of food that can be stored for future useMonoculture-clearing large areas of land to plant a single highly productive crop annually (soybean)Efficient sowing , tending, and harvesting of cropsProviding food for nearly 7 billion people-impacts natural resourcesFertilizer production and Farm machinery-consume large amounts of fossil fuels.
6Effects of Human Activity DevelopmentDense human communities produce lots of wastes.Not disposed correctly they affect air, water and soil.Consumes farmlandHabitat fragmentation
7Effects of Human Activity Industrial GrowthConveniences utilize a great deal of energy to produce and powerEnergy comes from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas (emits greenhouse gases-90 % of US emissions)Past-dumped waste directly into air, water and soil
8Sustainable development Goods-things that can be bought and sold and have value in terms of dollars and cents.Services-processes or actions that produce goods.Ecologically-these are goods and services produced by ecosystems that benefit the human economy.
10Ecosystem Goods and Services Many natural and free of chargeBreathable airDrinkable waterIn environment cant provide-society must spend money to produceE.g. many places drinkable water is free; source polluted or damages and water quality falls-must pay for water treatment to be safe.
12Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Can be produced or replaced by healthy ecosystem.E.g. southern white pine that can grow back when an old tree dies or is cut down.Natural processes cannot replenish these goods within a reasonable amount of time.E.g. fossil fuels (formed from buried organic material over millions of years) ; when depleted they are gone.
14Sustainable Resource Use Conscious Way to use resourcesProvides for human needs while preserving the ecosystem that produce natural resourcesNo harm to soil, water or climateFlexible enough to survive environmental stresses (droughts, floods, heat waves, etc.)Human economic systems-more than just enable people to survive-must help situation.
17Soil Resources Important objects that rely on soil Grain in cerealWood in homePages of textbookHealthly soil supports agriculture and forestry.
18Topsoil- mineral- and nutrient- rich portions of soil GOODabsorbs and retains moistureallows drainingrich organic matter and nutrientsRenewable ResourceProperly managedHealthy soil can take centuries to forms but be lost quickely
191930s drought Badly eroded once-fertile soil of Great Plains Thousands lost jobs and homesBecame a desert w/ dry soil- aka “dust bowl”Cause-conversion of prairie land to cropland in way that left soil vulnerable to erosion (wearing away).
20Soil Erosion Removal of soil by water or wind Worse- land plowed and left barren b/w plantings.No roots to hold soil-easily washed awayBadly eroded-organic materials and minerals that make soil fertile are carried away.
21DesertificationDry climates-farming, overgrazing, seasonal drought and climate change can turn farmland to desert.Great Plains is an example40% of Earth’s land is considered at risk
23Deforestation Loss of forest Forests value Wood Hold soil in place Protect quality of waterAbsorb CO2Moderate local temperature
24Deforestation ½ of world’s old-growth forests (never been cut) lost Temperate areas-forest can regrow after cutting; centuries for successionTropics-forest DO NOT grow back after loggingOld-Growth forest usually considered non-renewable.
25Deforestation can: Leads to severe erosion Change local soils and microclimates in a way prevent regrowth of treesE.g Tropical Rain Forest-Soil is thin and decomposition quick b/c of high heat and humidity.Soil ok for few yearsThen becomes wasteland; harsh conditions prevent regrowth
26Soil use and sustainability Minimize erosion through careful management of both agricultural and forestryLeaving stems and roots can helpCrop rotation-planting different crops at different seasons or in different years (erosion and nutrient loss)Altering shape (e.g. planting fields across, instead of down and slope; reduce water runoff and erosion.
27Freshwater ResourcesGoods and services-drinking water, industry, transportation, energy and waste disposal.Fresh water is renewable resource; some is notOgallala Aquifer- spans 8 states (South Dakota to Texas); more than a million years to collect; not replenished by rainfall; expected to run dry in years.3% Earth’s water is fresh water- most locked in ice at poles
28Water Pollution Pollutant-harmful material that can enter biosphere. Point source- pollution enter water supply from single source (e.g. factory or oil spill)Nonpoint source- pollutant enters from many smaller sources (e.g. grease and oil washed off streets; chemicals released by factories and autos)Primary sources-industrial and agriculture chemicals; residential sewage; and nonpoint sources
29Industrial and Agricultural Chemicals Industrial ChemicalsAgricultural ChemicalsPCBs-Chemical used in industry until 1970s; large-scale contamination events; banned.Can be difficult, if not impossible to eliminateOthers-Cadmium, lead, mercury and zincPesticides and insecticidesRunoff-enter water supplyDDT-pesticide; dangerous, controls against pest and disease carrying mosquitoes; threatened fish-eating birds-females laid fragile eggs; lowered numbersBiomagnification
30Biological Magnification Pollutant concentrations increase as they move up the trophic levels.
32Residential Sewage Household waste-becomes sewage Not poisonous-contains lots of nitrogen and phosphorusReasonable amounts-process and absorbed healthy ecosystemLarge amounts-blooms of algae and bacteria rob water of oxygen.Dead zones-oxygen poor areas- fresh or salt waterSewage carry microorganism that can spread disease.
33Water Quality and Sustainability Protect natural systems involved in water cycle.Watershed-land whose groundwater, streams, and rivers drain into same place (lake or river)Sewage treatment can lower bacteria and prevent dead zonesIntegrated Pest Management (IPM) instead of pesticides-biological control
34Water Quality and Sustainability Use of less-poisonous spraysCrop rotationWater conservationdrip irrigation
35Atmospheric Resources Common resource whose quality has a direct effect on health*Provides Oxygen we breathe
36Ozone Form of oxygen-O3 Natural; Upper atmosphere Absorbs harmful UV radiation from sunlight; protecting skin from cancer
37Atmospheric ServicesGreenhouse Gases- (CO2, Methane and water vapor) regulate global temperaturesW/out Earth would be 30°C coolerNever “Used Up”Human activities can have lasting impact
38Air PollutionAir quality reduced-respiratory illnesses are made worse and tend to increase.Globally-climate patterns may be impacted
39Cause of Air PollutionIndustrial processesBurning fossil fuels
40Forms of Air PollutionSmogAcid RainGreenhouse GasesParticulates
41SmogGray-brown haze formed by chemical reactions among pollutants released into the air by industrial processes and automobile exhaust.
42SmogProductsOzone-High in atmosphere protective; ground level, threatens health, especially those with respiratory conditions.2008 summer Olympics in Beijing
43Acid Rain Rain containing nitric and sulfuric acids Cause-burning fossil fuel releases nitrogen and sulfur compounds; combine with water vapors and from acids.Effectskills plantsDamages leavesChanges chemistry of the soil and surface waterDissolve and release mercury and other toxic elements from soil (enter other parts of biosphere)
45Greenhouse GasesBurning fossil fuels and forest-release carbon into atmosphere as CO2Agriculture-raising cattle to farming rice releases methane and other green house gasses.Contribute to global warming and climate change.
46ParticulatesVisible, microscopic particles from certain industrial processes and certain diesel engines.Ash, dust, soot, smoke aerosolsEnter nose and mouth-to lungs and cause serious health problems.
47Air Quality and Sustainability Difficult to improveDoesn’t stay in one placeDoesn’t “belong” to anyoneImprovementsAutomobile emissions standardsClean-air regulationsPhasing out of lead gas; now banned in US
49BiodiversityTotal of all the genetically based variation in all organisms in the biosphereVariety of organisms
50Types of BiodiversityEcosystem Diversity-Variety of habitats, communities and ecological processes in the biosphere.Species Diversity- The number of different species in the biosphere or in a particular area.1.8 species identified and named30 million more to be discoveredGenetic Diversity-Sum total of all different forms of genetic information carried by a particular species, or all organisms on Earth.
51Valuing Biodiversity Greatest natural resources Contributions to medicine and agricultureProvision of ecosystem goods and servicesMake our world a beautiful, interesting place
52Biodiversity and Medicine Willow barkWild species are original sources of many medicinesPainkillers-aspirinAntibiotics-penicillinBlue green moldChemicals in wild treat diseases like depression and cancerFoxglove-Digoxin for heart disease
53Biodiversity and Agriculture Wild plants may carry genes we can use for:Plant breedingGenetic engineering- transfer disease or pest resistance or other useful traits to plant crops.
54Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Number and variety in ecosystem can influence stability, productivity and value to humans.Keystone species can completely change an ecosystemHealthy and diversity ecosystems play a role in maintaining soil, water and air quality
55Species LossScientist estimate 99% of species that have lived are extinctSpecies loss is now approaching 1000 x’s the “typical” rate.Human knowledge held in genes is lost
56Species diversity/Genetic Diversity More genetically diverse, greater chances of survivalHuman activity reduces genetic diversity; species greater risk of extinctionEcosystems damages-organisms more at risk
57Humans reduce biodiversity Altering habitatsHuntingIntroducing invasive speciesReleasing pollution into food websContribute to climate change
59Altered HabitatsAgriculture and urban development-loss of habitats; some species become extinctHabitat fragmentation-development splits ecosystems into pieces leaving “islands”Smaller island, fewer speciesMore vulnerable- Open to attack or damage
60Hunting and Demand for Wildlife Products Hunting can lead to extinctionCarolina parakeetPassenger pigeonToday endangered species protected; but not in Africa, South American and Southeast AsiaHunting purposesBirds hunted for meatHides and skins for commercial valueBody parts of medicinal propertiesPetsHabitat fragmentation leaves less hiding spaces for prey
61CITES Convention on international Trade in Endangered Species Bans international trade in products from a list of endangered species.
62Introduced/Invasive Species Threaten biodiversityChange ecosystemsDrive native species close to extinctionEconomical lossE.g. Leafy spurge; infest millions of hectares across Northern Great Plans; displaces grasses and other plants; milky latex can sicken/kill cattle and horses; ranchers and farmers losses exceeded $120 million.
63Pollution DDT-prevents birds from laying healthy eggs Peregrine Falcon #’s plummeted from use of chemicalsAcid Rain-stress on land and water organismsIncrease CO2- dissolved in oceans making more acidic, threatens environment
64Climate ChangeOrganisms have specific tolerance ranges to abiotic factors; changes beyond tolerance can be devastating; must be moved or face extinctionEstimates vary regarding effects of climate change on biodiversity.1.5 °C to 2.5 °C over late 20th century-30% species are likely to face risk of extinction.Above 3.5°C risk is 40-70%
65Conserving Biodiversity Protect individual speciesPreserve habitats and ecosystemsHuman neighbors of protected areas benefit from conversation efforts.
66Protecting Individual Species Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) oversees species survival plans (SSPs) that are designed to protect threatened and endangered species.Captive breeding programs-breed in controlled placeReintroduction programs- back into habitatCurrently 180 species are covered by SSPs.
67Preserving Habitats and Ecosystems Not just species, but the habitatParks and Reservation-conservation effortsMarine Sanctuaries-coral reefs and marine mammalsProtect area large enough to protect biodiversity
68Ecological Hot SpotsPlace where significant numbers of species and habitats are in immediate danger of extinction1500 species of native vascular plantsLost at least 70% of original habitat34 hot spots cover 2.3 of Earth’s land surface/ 50 % of plant species & 42% of terrestrial vertebrates
69Local InterestIndividuals must change habits or way earn living-incentive to those involvedTax credits- e.g. for solar panels; Energy Star; hybrid carsParks and preserves- attract tourist dollarsAustralia-farmers paid to plant trees; improved water quality and improved cow’s health; shade in the summer
70Carbon Credits Incentives to Industry to cut fossil fuels Encourages Certain amount permitted to be burnedRest sold back at market value or traded to other companyEncouragesIndustries to pay for lower emissions machineryAdopt carbon saving practicesLess financial burden
72Ecological FootprintEcological Footprints describes the total area of functioning land and water ecosystems needed both to provide and the resources an individual or population uses and to absorb and make harmless the wastes that an individual or populations generate.
73Ecological Footprints considerations EnergyFood you eatMiles you travelElectric useShelterWaste and SewageGreen house gases
74Footprint limitations No way to calculate exact numbersNo universal way to calculate footprint sizeOnly a “snapshot” of situation at particular time
75Comparing FootprintsUseful in making comparison among different populationsOne data set-America has an ecological footprint over 4 x larger thane the global averagePer person use of resources in US2x that in England2x that in Japan6x that in ChinaCalculate Footprint for Country- footprint for typical citizen and then multiply by size of population
76Ecology in Action Future depends on: Ecological footprintsGlobal population growthTechnological developmentEcological principles for sustainable futureRecognizing the problem in environmentResearching the problem to determine its causeUse scientific understanding to change behavior