Presentation on theme: "Mexico Latin America Notes"— Presentation transcript:
1Mexico Latin America Notes Mexico and Central America stretch for 2,500 miles, from the U.S. border to South America
2Geography of Mexico: Mountains dominate most of Mexico. Sierra Madres run along both coasts of Mexico.Between the Sierra Madres runs a plateau = an area of high, flat land
3Baja California = “Lower California” and is part of Mexico. Baja California is a peninsula, which is a strip of land that is surrounded on three sides by water.Baja California = “Lower California” and is part of Mexico.
4Central Plateau: Most people live in Mexico’s central plateau. 4/5 of Mexico’s population live in the Central PlateauBecause of the surrounding mountains it is hard for people to travel to and from the Central Plateau.
5Natural Hazards:The Central Plateau is unstable because four tectonic plates meet there.Because of moving tectonic plates, active volcanoes are located on the edge of the plateau.HospitalIn 1985, a strong earthquake hit Mexico City, killing about 10,000 people and causing about $4.1 billion in damage
6Climate FactorsSierra Madres block rainfall coming from the ocean, some areas in the central plateau only receive 4 inches of precipitation/year.Climate draws people to Mexico City.Because the central plateau is at a high elevation, about 7,000 feet, the climate is pleasant year-round. Mid 70’s
7The Coastal Regions of Mexico Northern Pacific Coast – Dry, hot, and thinly populated.- Despite its arid climate this region has some of the best farmland in MexicoSouthern Pacific Coast – Smaller mountain range edges the narrow southern Pacific coast-Not much farm land, but tourism is big in this region-Tropical climateGulf Coastal Plain –Very important to Mexico’s economy – vast deposits of petroleum and natural gases- One of the world’s major oil-producing regionsYucatan Peninsula –Generally flatTourism greatly contributes to economic development in this area,Ancient Mayan ruins attract many visitors and archaeologists
8A Place of Three Cultures: Native Americans, Spanish and mestizo Aztecs:In 1400’s Aztecs built a powerful empire around their capital city, Tenochtitlan.In 1519, Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes and 600 Spaniards marched into Tenochtitlan.Within 2 years the Spanish took over Tenochtitlan and the Aztecs, and re-named the city “New Spain”
9New Spain:Peninsulares = Born in Spain, moved to New Spain, held high official positionsCriollos = People of Spanish ancestry born in New SpainMestizos = People of mixed ancestryIndians = ranked lowest, provided labor, slave like existence.
10Road to Democracy:Tensions were raised between different social classes . Lead to resentment between the criollos and the peninsulares.In 1821, Mexico became an independent nation, with military dictatorsIn 1810, a criollo, Miguel Hidalgo declared a rebellion against Spanish rule. Resulting in a war of independence.The Mexican Revolution stood up to the military dictator and ended in 1920 with a new democratic president and constitutionIn 1910, peasants and middle-class Mexican rebelled causing the Mexican Revolution.
11Social ConditionsRural Life = Most people in the countryside work in agriculture, on haciendas. Haciendas are large, Spanish owned estates of land.3-4 million rural Mexican families have no land or opportunity for work. These people are called migrant workers. Migrant workers = landless, jobless peasants, traveling from place to place for work.Urban Life = ¾ of Mexican people live in urban areas. Mexico City is one of the largest urban areas in the world.City life means better job opportunities, chances for education and excitement
12Economic ActivitiesNAFTA = North American Free Trade Agreement. A free trade network between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. With NAFTA Mexico’s trade with the U.S. and Canada doubled, and manufacturing increased and unemployment declined in Mexico.Major Industries = Petroleum and TourismAlong the U.S. and Mexico border, more than 2,000 factories assemble products almost exclusively for the U.S.