Presentation on theme: "Chinese Agricultural Aid in Tanzania: Reproduction of Chinese Agricultural Regime Zhang Yue PhD Candidate College of Humanities and Development Studies/"— Presentation transcript:
Chinese Agricultural Aid in Tanzania: Reproduction of Chinese Agricultural Regime Zhang Yue PhD Candidate College of Humanities and Development Studies/ Research Center of International Development, China Agricultural University 14 ， Feb, 2014 Canberra
OUTLINE Background Research goal Methodology Research findings -Technology -Institution -Reality
Background China as a new development partner In recent years, China is undergoing important transformation from a recipient country to a new donor, attracting a growing research interest in China’s aid. China’s experiences in agricultural development China’s agriculture annual average growth rate is 4.5 percent(1978–2009), total grain output at 2.4 percent and population at 1.07 percent. Agriculture and total grain output consequently outpaced population growth, which enabled China to feed a population accounting for 20 per cent of the world’s total from its limited arable land (11 percent of the world’s total) using water resources equivalent to 25 percent of the world average (Huang 2008). Agriculture growth is an important contributor to reducing China’s rural poverty
Background China’s agricultural foreign aid 4.3% of total Chinese foreign aid (until 2009) Chinese agricultural aid to Africa is growing rapidly and having increasingly important impact on African agricultural development and poverty reduction. Agricultural aid forms -Farm -Experiment and promotion stations of agro-technology -Constructing farmland irrigation and water-conservancy projects -Supplying agricultural machinery and implements, farm produce processing equipment and related agricultural materials -Dispatching agro technicians and senior agricultural experts to pass on agricultural production technologies and provide consultations on rural development, and training agricultural personnel for recipient countries -Agricultural technology demonstration center (2006)
Background Chinese Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center Chinese agricultural technology demonstration center is one of the main forms of Chinese agricultural aid after the third Forum on China-Africa Cooperation FOCAC in Tanzania Case preparation construction handover to Tanzania Government Investment: 40 million RMB The center covers a total area of 62 hectares, and will express 3 functions: 1. Experiment and Research ： The experiment will be a blend of all the trials for rice, maize, vegetable, tissue culture of banana, as well as trial in raising egg layer. 2. Training ： Train the agricultural official, technicians, service personnel and the local farmers with the advanced technologies. Train 300 person annually. 3. Demonstration and Extending ： Demonstrate and extend new varieties and matching cultivation techniques.
This center provides a good case for understanding realities and nature of Chinese agricultural aid.
Research goal The purpose of the research is to provide a picture of how Chinese experts do agricultural aid in African countries. I explore the following questions through the case study of Chinese Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center in Tanzania: Who are implementing agricultural aid project in African countries? What are they doing in daily work? What knowledge and technologies of agricultural production do they introduce to local people? What is the institutional arrangement of the aid project? What does the center achieve in helping Tanzania’s agriculture production? What are the similarities and differences between the Chinese Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center project and western donor’s agricultural projects? … Through the empirical study, I argue that of Chinese Agricultural Technology Demonstration is a process of reproduction of Chinese agricultural development experiences,consisting of biological high-yield technology and state-driven, market-mediated institutional arrangement.
Methodology Ethnographic methodologies are employed in my field research in Chinese agricultural technology demonstration center in Tanzania. I lived in the center and worked alongside a team of six Chinese agronomists and ten local employees for almost three months. Information collecting techniques: Participatory observation Interviews Second-hand data
1.2 Chinese agronomists apply agricultural technologies, which are used and using in China’s own agriculture development, in Tanzania. The Demonstration Center of China agricultural technology in Tanzania was designed to be a platform for trial, demonstration and training, focusing on rice. The rice trials used several selected Chinese high-yield and high-quality hybrid rice varieties and local conventional rice varieties to do controlled trial. Chinese experts designed and did the fieldwork mainly by themselves in the whole process of rice cultivation, and strictly followed the field management principles that they do in China. Deep plowing on the trial farmland, which is dry and overgrown with weeds; preparing paddy field ； transplanting; applying appropriate fertilizer in accurate timing; sufficient and timely irrigation, weeding and pest control. They work in the field almost everyday, without weekend.
1.3 Chinese rice varieties and matching cultivation techniques bring high yield to African land. The trial result showed that the yield of Chinese hybrid varieties is about twice of the yield of the local conventional varieties.
1.4 Chinese rice technology with the main character of high yield attracted local farmers’ attention. In the time of harvest, the Demonstration Center held a field show and invited farmers and agricultural technicians nearby to come and see. One Chinese expert said to visitors: “The characters of Chinese variety are high yield, big rice ear, and short growth period. Under same investment, Chinese hybrid varieties’ yield will at least increase 50%.” And in another occasion Chinese experts also said, “if you are interested in Chinese varieties, you can get them, but you must cultivate it follow our requirement and standers. If you cultivate Chinese varieties in your conventional way, you still can not get high yield”. One local farmer, who is also a safeguard in the center, said: “They (the Chinese Experts) are demonstrating how to plant rice, they show the spacing, if you want to plant in space, you plant like this, you plant the seed when it is in this size, this and that, you use this fertilizer, you use this amount of water, you use this amount of seeds. And the season goes very fast, and the result is there. Then everyone see. There is light shining there that if you doing this, the poverty will be alleviated. Some villagers say Chinese can do everything”.
1.5 Agricultural technologies and knowledge demonstrated in the Chinese agricultural technology demonstration center center in Tanzania, is exactly China’s own experiences in agricultural development, achieving high biological yield by using improved varieties and labor-intensified high-yield cultivation techniques.
2. Institution 2.1 Chinese agricultural technology extension history and experiences Commercial reform (1990s) State-driven, market-mediated and small farmer-based strategy Multi-functional Practical
2.2 The center’s management structure and operation mode show that Chinese state-market relationship is the underlying principle of Chinese aid program. The government allows companies to engage in aid program to ensure sustainability based on multi-functional goals. The Chinese government (MOA, MOFCOM) set up basic principles and cooperation structure, monitor, and evaluate. The project has been carried out by Chongqing Sino- Tanzania Agriculture Development Co., Ltd
The Center (six Chinese agronomists) Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Commerce Chongqing Sino- Tanzania Agriculture Development Co., Ltd People’s government of Chongqing Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences Chongqing Zhongyi Seed Company
2.3 The engagement of private sector makes the government-led agricultural technology demonstration center into a multi-functional project, and improves efficiency and sustainability of the aid project. providegain governmentPlatform; political support; finance; Well-running and sustainable aid project; Political and economical ； companyAgronomists; technology; Business interest; new market;
3. Reality All of these above show that Chinese agricultural aid is deeply shaped by China’s own agricultural development experiences, which is the basic political and cultural character of Chinese aid. When Chinese agricultural development experiences met African agricultural reality, inadaptability showed up. Agricultural technologies rooted in China’s social and economic condition can not fully adapted to Africa’s reality without adjustment.
High yield only in the center’s trial land,not local famers’ until now. Explanations: 1.Chinese high-yield variety VS local conventional variety (Taste) 2.High input VS low income (Fertilizer and machinery) 3.Labor-intensive VS land intensive (resource endowment) 4.Strong government VS relatively weak government
Two projects in one village Chinese governmentUSAID InfrastructureMoney Technical professionals (in field)Project managers (in office) High yieldCapacity No genderGender Every farmer can comeDemocracy, selection Work with government institutionsWork with famers’ association There are two agricultural aid projects going on in this small village. One is the Chinese agricultural technology demonstration center and the other one is USAID Feed the Future Initiatives. I tried to illustrate some differences between this two projects by details.