Presentation on theme: "Transforming Urban Villages in Shenzhen, China Yinqing Tang & Erin Cho Design Strategies Parsons, The New School."— Presentation transcript:
Transforming Urban Villages in Shenzhen, China Yinqing Tang & Erin Cho Design Strategies Parsons, The New School
Urban Villages Urban villages in developed countries – a well-planned development at the edge of an urban area characterized by medium-density housing, mixed use zoning, good public transit and public spaces (Aldous 1992). Urban villages in China – Old villages sandwiched by new urban development projects.
Urban Village in Shenzhen, China Until 1979, Shenzhen was a remote border town in South China with a population of just 30,000. In 1979, the geographical foundation of the export-oriented sector of reform -- the “open door policy” -- established a system of special economic zones (SEZs). Shenzhen has become China's first and ultimately most successful SEZ. Shenzhen has suffered from many problems associated with rapid urbanization which include urban villages.
Finding Solutions Exploratory study Proposes ways to address identified issues and improve living conditions for urban villagers in Shenzhen without incurring exorbitant costs.
Rise of Urban Villages Rapid expansion of the city. – A considerable amount of farmland was urbanized, creating difficulties in balancing the different needs for multiple players. – In particular, the local farmers needed the place to stay at low costs, thus the government decided to take over only the farmland, not the land on which residents lived. – As time passed, the villages became surrounded by skyscrapers, and the price of the land rose ten thousand times.
Rise of Urban Villages The rise in the migrant, or floating population – High demand in low-rent housing. – The local government of Shenzhen has not provided a large quantity of low-rent housing.
Rise of Urban Villages Lack of government regulations – Particularly those located in the SEZ. Unwillingness of local villagers to leave – No other means to support their living.
Economic and Social Issues with Urban Villages Many urban villages are located in the center of the city, and the land they stand on could provide higher economic value and efficiency. Security problems and high crime rates associated with a highly mobile population. The villagers’ heavy reliance on rent collection. High building and population density which could create disasters in the case of fire or collapse.
Seeking Solutions To improve the economic, social and physical conditions of the villages in order to meet the national standards and requirements of the government's low-rental housing policy.
In reality High costs – Compensation for demolitions, resettlement of residents, accommodation for migrant workers. Difficulty with implementing the set standards for renovation. Demand from land developers and investors.
Common Grounds for Solutions Exploratory study Methods – 25 interviews with urban villagers – 15 interviews with local government officials in the city planning bureau
Perspectives of Urban Villagers Mostly concerned about safety. Highly interested in improving living conditions. Discouraged by existing reform plans, most of which focus on resettling villagers to remote areas after taking over their land by paying out lump-sum compensation. Different degree and willingness to renovate the building they own. No incentives to turn it over to the local government.
Perspectives of Government Officers Sympathy toward the villagers. Do not think that urban villages should be removed from the city. Yet, integrated demolition and rebuilding are necessary. Interested in resolving the conflict of interest between villagers, investors, and the government.
Renovation driven by villagers Believe that low-rental housing-oriented village reforms changed the pattern of the past, regulating and guaranteeing housing for the floating population. Give the floating population a sense of security. A solution to the resettlement and management of the floating population.
Admittance, cooperation, and Centralization – Need to be integrated into planning and rational arrangement at the city level. – Persuade and educate villagers to comply with the government’s supervision and management of the rental market.
Bilateral cooperation – Committee formed by villagers – Collective funds Centralization of the management of the reformed villages.