2Desertification of the Sahel The Sahel in Arabic means “shore of the desert.”It is a narrow band of dry grassland that runs east to west on the southern edge of the Sahara.Since the 1960s, the desert has spread into this band of dry grassland.
4Desertification of the Sahel This shift of the desert is called desertification, which is an expansion of dry conditions to moist areas that are next to deserts.
5Desertification of the Sahel Human Causes of DesertificationOvergrazingFarmingIncreasing Population
6Desertification of the Sahel Farming increases this process. When farmers clear land to plant crops, they expose the soil to the wind, which can cause erosion. In addition, irrigation increases salt levels which prevent the growth of vegetation.
12Harming the Environment in Nigeria Another environmental issue has to do with the discovery of oil in Nigeria in Rich oil deposits in the Niger Delta made Nigeria one of Africa’s wealthiest countries.
13Harming the Environment in Nigeria The damage caused by foreign oil companies and the Nigerian government has been severe. More than 4,000 oil spills have been recorded in Nigeria over the past four decades.Shell oil spill in Nigeriain 2004.
14Harming the Environment in Nigeria Cleanup operations have been slowOil spills have caused fires, acid rain, massive deposits of sootResulted in high rates of respiratory disease
16Controlling the NileEgypt has always depended on the water of the Nile River.The two main tributaries of the Nile River are the White Nile and the Blue Nile.Lake Victoria is the source of the White Nile and the Blue Nile.The Nile River has a total length of 4,160 miles from source to sea – the longest river in the world.
17Sahara Desert Controlling the Nile The fertile areas surrounding the Nile RiverSaharaDesert
18Controlling the NileThroughout history, Egyptians have experienced cycles of floods and droughts.Throughout history, the Nile River flooded each year during late summer, as water flowed down the valley from its East African drainage basin. These floods brought high water and natural nutrients and minerals that annually enriched the fertile soil along the floodplain and delta; this made the Nile valley ideal for farming since ancient times. Because floods vary, in high-water years, the whole crop might be wiped out, while in low-water years widespread drought and famine occasionally occurred. As Egypt's population grew and conditions changed, both a desire and ability developed to control the floods, and thus both protect and support farmland and the economically important cotton crop.
19Controlling the NileTo solve these problems, they built the Aswan High Dam, which was completed in The dam gives farmers a regular supply of water.
20Facts The Aswan High Dam is 2.2 miles long and 354 feet high. The Soviet Union helped the Egyptian government to build the dam.The Aswan High Dam has 12 turbines which generate over 10 billion kilowatts of electricity every year.Construction started on the dam in 1960 and it was completed in 1971.30,000 Egyptian people worked day and night to build the Aswan High Dam.Lake Nasser was created behind the Aswan High Dam. It is the largest artificial lake in the World (348 miles in length). It is named after the former President of Egypt.
21Controlling the NileThe Advantages of the Aswan Dam
22Controlling the Nile Electricity for homes and industry: Generators in the dam are used to generate electricity that is taken to homes and industries by pylons.PylonsAluminium and copper smelting industry
23Controlling the Nile Flood control: Control of flooding is carried out by the dam. By keeping so much water back in Lake Nasser, the River Nile rarely floods the surrounding farmland any more.
24Controlling the Nile New farmland created: The act of keeping back the waterfrom the River Nilehas lowered itslevel, effectivelycreating newfarmland by theriver sides. This isalso less prone toflooding.
25Controlling the Nile Irrigation water for nearby farmland: Development of irrigation channels from Lake Nasser, takes water from the reservoir to the nearby desert to make farmland for watering crops. The electricity pumps the water there.
26Controlling the Nile Fish stocks in Lake Nasser: Fish live in the lake and canbe fished more easily by those fishermen who used to fish inthe River Nile. This improves their livelihoods andfish stocks can be replacedmore easily.Also creates tourism via game fishing.
27Controlling the NileThe Disadvantages of the Aswan Dam
28Controlling the NileBecause of the dam, the Nile River no longer deposits its rich silt on the farmland.Silt, that would normally make its way down river gets trapped behind the dam, lowering the level of the reservoir. In addition, this silt would have made its way onto farmland and onto the Nile Delta and this is now causing farmland to become less fertile and the Nile Delta to stop growing.
29Controlling the Nile Water-borne diseases increase: As the water in both the reservoir and irrigation channels is contained and, in a lot of places, static, this promotes the build-up of water snails which carry the disease bilharzia. Many other diseases also increase as they are not 'flushed away' by the flow of the River Nile.Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever) is a parasitic disease caused by several species of parasitic worms. Although it has a low mortality rate, schistosomiasis often is a chronic illness that can damage internal organs and, in children, impair growth and cognitive development.
30Controlling the NileNow, farmers must rely on expensive artificial fertilizer to enrich the soil.Increased agriculture along with a decrease in silt has forced farmers to fertilize the land more. This has created agricultural run-off which is polluting the Nile water.
31Controlling the Nile Land lost from flooding of Lake Nasser: Although there were some land gains from the building of the dam, there were much more losses behind the dam where the land was flooded to make the reservoir of Lake Nasser. Many people were moved and made homeless as well as losing their farmland.The temples of Abu Simnel had to be moved.NewLocationOldLocation
32Controlling the NileEvaporation from Lake Nasser is very high:This is an extremely hot area of the world. Evaporation from Lake Nasser is very high as a consequence and this means a lot of water is lost.
33Controlling the NileWater pollutants – treating municipal water can often be too expensive for the more impoverished areas along the Nile. Unfortunately, these cities dump polluted water, containing human waste, back into the Nile untreated. This causes disease to spread.
35Controlling the NileAlso, year-round irrigation has resulted in a rising water table in Egypt. As a result, salts from deep in the earth have decreased the fertility of the soil.When water evaporates in these hot areas, it brings salts to the soil surface. This is called salinization and it is not good for the soils or the crops. If too much salt rises to the surface, it can kill the plants and reduce yields.