3Periods of the Middle Ages Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000High Middle Ages: – 1250Late Middle Ages:
4WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES? What is a frontier land?Location. Europe is a relatively small area, although its impact on the modern world has been enormous. It lies on the western end of Eurasia.
5WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES? Resources. At the time of the Middle Ages, Europe had great-untapped potential. Dense farmland covered much of the North, and the region’s rich black earth was better suited for farming.
6WHY WAS EUROPE A FRONTIER LAND IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES? The seas that surround much of Europe were important to its growth.A. FishingB. TradeC. Exploration of new landsLarge rivers were ideal for trade. Mountain streams fueled the invention of the water wheel for powering mills.
7Paving the way for Charlemagne Between A.D. 400 and 700, the Germanic tribes carved up Western Europe into small kingdoms. **The Franks were Powerful**No real cities or written laws. People lived in small communities ruled by kings.Frankish leader Clovis became Catholic. He now had the support of the Romans and church.480 Clovis became King of the Franks and conquered the province of Gaul.
8Paving the way for Charlemagne Circa 800 Charlemagne built an empire reaching across France, Germany, and part of Italy.The Pope proclaimed him emperor.We now call this the Holy Roman Empire. He extended the Christian civilization into.He also set up a strong government that was used as an example for medieval rulers.After his death his empire crumbled.
9Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
12Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843
13HOW DID INVASIONS EFFECT THE PEOPLE OF WESTERN EUROPE? Attacks by the Vikings, Muslims, and other groups of people, made kings and emperors too weak to maintain law and order.People needed a way to defend their homes and lands.In response to the basic need for protection, a new government started called Feudalism.
18MANORIALISMThe land the vassal received was called a manor (fief). It included a manor house, farmland, and a group of peasants. Most were serfs.Each manor was self-sufficient/self supporting.Raised most of what they needed to live.Grew their own food.Raised farm animals for food and wool.Managed trees for fuel and lumber.**Economic system of the Middle Ages**
19MANORIALISMDuring the Early Middle Ages towns all but disappeared from Europe. Rome the Largest city of its time went from 1 million people to only a few thousand.Around the 10th century, things began to improve and towns and trade began to grow.
23The Road to Knighthood Role of a knight Most important member of the feudal armyMain job was fightingServed his masterDefended Christianity
24Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior Chivalry-Honored set of rules sworn to by all knights.Emphasis upon courage, loyalty, devotion to duty, courtesy towards and defense of women, protected the poor, the weak the needy.
25Stages of Knighthood Stage #1 Page (age 7+) Learned to ride a horse Learned mannersHad religious instruction (learned to read)Trained in music and dance by the ladies of castle.
26Stages of Knighthood Stage #2 Squire (age 12+) Assisted knights Became the lords devoted assistantTook care of armor and weapons and became skilled in their use.Helped in tournaments
27Stages of Knighthood Stage #3 Knight (age- when qualified) Knighted by the King
28Heraldry Heraldry is also called a coat of arms Used as identification on a knight’s shield during battle
30The Medieval Catholic Church Monastery:St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of poverty and obedience.provided schools for the children of the upper class.inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts.monks missionaries to convert the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
31The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system.the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.tried to reduce feudal warfare only days a year for combat.tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church.Peter’s Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
32Role of the Church Influence Spread ChristianityConverted barbarians to ChristianityUnified EuropeMonks saved knowledge from past civilizationsIntroduced Roman ideals of government and justice
33Role of the Church Roles Government dutiesCollected taxes, ran courts, punished criminals, and made lawsEducationmonasteries were centers of learning, monks taught reading and writing, preserved documents, established schools.HospitalsCared for the sick and needyInnGuest houses were built to accommodate travelers
34Corruptionlack honesty, use of a position of trust for dishonest gain.involvement in feudalism led to corruption and the fall of the church.Awarded fiefs to wealthy church members.Bishops and monks took on the role of vassals.Loyalty of the church was divided between spiritual duties and economic duties.