Presentation on theme: "A Century of Agronomy at K-State George Ham. Development of Kansas Agriculture Development of agriculture in the state of Kansas over the last 100 years."— Presentation transcript:
Development of Kansas Agriculture Development of agriculture in the state of Kansas over the last 100 years has come a long way and was influenced by the contributions of the Department of Agronomy. So has the development of Department of Agronomy come a long way; result of a strong commitment from the faculty. KSAC,KSC, and KSU programs have contributed significantly to the improvement of Kansas agriculture during the last 100 years with the dissemination of research-based information. Need to recognize accomplishments of last 100 years and plan to begin the next 100 years.
History of Kansas In 1803, Louisiana Purchase; $15 million; added 13 states including Kansas; doubled territory of the U.S. Territory of Kansas opened to settlement in 1854. High quality land at low prices was a primary attraction for settlers to the region. In 1861, Kansas gained statehood. Kansas farmers acquired most of their land through purchase from the government and railroad Land Grants and through the homesteading process; homesteading required the settler to remain on the claim 5 years.
Teaching was the original purpose of the land-grant universities Morrill Act or Land-Grant Act – 1862 – made education available to low income people, especially the 85% of population living on farms and in rural areas. Provided 30,000 acres of land for each representative and senator; land was sold and proceeds used to endow, support and maintain at least one college where the leading object shall be….agriculture and the mechanic arts.
Kansas acceptance of the Morrill Act With the public land gift and the donation of Bluemont Central College, the people of Kansas owned Kansas State Agricultural College. Transfer of Bluemont Central College was carried out on July 2, 1863. In 1875, KSAC moved to the present campus. In 1880, Bluemont wanted land deeded back.
Other Significant Legislation Hatch Act – 1887- provided $15,000/yr to conduct agricultural experiments and distributing results; KAES managed by a council rather than head. Smith-Lever Act – 1914; established Cooperative Extension Service. Fort Hays Branch Station in 1901 as part of former military reservation. Later, branch stations at Garden City, Tribune, Colby, and Mound Valley. 1923-1964 over 30 experiment and irrigation fields under the off-campus research programs of KAES.
Kansas is Tremendous Outdoor Laboratory State is a 200 x 400 miles, rectangle shaped. KS contains 53 million acres, 47 million acres in farms; 29 million acres in tilled crops and tame forages; 18 million acres in rangelands; 25 million acres prime farmland (soil quality, growing season, moisture). Rainfall varies from about 14 inches to 40+ inches. Elevation ranges from 679 to 4,039 ft above sea level. Growing season 60+ days shorter in NW than SE. More than 300 soil mapping units in Kansas; Kansas ranks #2 in U.S. in prime farmland acreage; 21/105 counties receive less than 20” of rainfall or they would be “prime”.
Settlement of Kansas In 1860-1864, 30,000 of the 100,000 settlers left eastern KS due to a drought. In 1870s, terrible drought; one of worst on record; heavy grasshopper infestation in 1874 and 1875. By 1875, half of KS was settled; most of the 531,000 settlers lived on farms. Between 1887 and 1892, western KS lost half of the population; settlement reached W KS in 1890. By 1900, the population increased to 1.4 million; settlers were moving into and out of Kansas.
Early Agricultural Development Little effort on developing a vigorous agriculture. Early settlers were largely from NE US; they came from a humid climate which continued into eastern KS; they did not understand the erratic weather further west and used farming methods unadapted to KS; low chance of success. They found a strange and often unkind climate further west; early years were hard with droughts and insect pests. Early farms were small and unproductive. Small population, no urban centers, markets too distant and hard to reach with poor transportation.
Development of Crops in KS Five major cultivated crops evolved in Kansas: corn, wheat, sorghum, soybeans, and alfalfa. Corn was first crop grown in Kansas; king first 60 years of settlement. When Kansas gained statehood in 1861, corn was grown on 160,000 acres and was the leading cultivated crop. By early 1880s corn was grown on 5 million acres; Kansas was the leading wheat producing state in the U.S., but wheat was second to corn. From 1881 to 1910, corn acreage almost double wheat. In 1914, wheat acreage surpassed corn in acres.
Sorghum improvement by selection in about 1888. Early–maturing grain sorghum brought to KS in 1906; more drought tolerant than other crops. Labor-intensive harvesting of the grain slowed the expansion of grain sorghum; early plants were 2-3 meters tall.
KSAC faculty introduced soybeans in KS in 1889 and increased interest in soybeans. Research focus on adaptation (yield, shattering resistance, earliness), crop production and utilization. First AES bulletin in U.S.entirely on soybeans. More soybeans were grown for hay than beans until 1940. Demand for oil-producing crops during WW II increased soybean acreage ( also, flax was encouraged for oil). Alfalfa first grown in Marion Co. in 1868; gained rapid popularity about 20 years later; 1 million acres in 1912.
Decline of Corn Acreage in Kansas New land cultivated in western KS was more suitable for wheat due to limited rainfall. Wheat was almost completely mechanized and corn was produced by horse and hand labor. Grain sorghum was rapidly replacing corn in low rainfall areas of western KS. Introduction of the wheat combines in the 1920s allowed fast and efficient harvesting; Combines also expedited the development of dwarf or combine type sorghum. Corn pickers first available in 1928 and 1929.
The machine age moved crop production from draft animals to more efficient power farming and influenced which crops were produced. Mechanization led to more timely farming operations which is important for high yields. Development of the power take off and the hydraulic lift made possible larger farm implements and increased the speed of their operation. A farmer managed more acres; farm size increased and the number of farms decreased. New implements (drill, reaper, mower, and thresher ) plus the development of a railroad network helped commercial agriculture gradually replace subsistence farming.
Other Crops Were Introduced in Kansas Many new crops tried during early trial and error period. Sunflowers, cotton, oats, barley, canola, tobacco, rye, hemp, flax, castorbeans, foxtail, proso millet, buckwheat, pearl millet, safflower, and other crops. Low potential crops faded from the scene and more reliable and higher return crops expanded. Oat acreage increased as a feed grain for more than 1 million horses and mules from 1889 – 1928.
Canola New crop to KS; USDA Special Grant Funding Breeding started in 1993. 4 cultivars and 2 germplasm lines released. Winter hardiness issue. 10,000 acres planted in fall of 2004. Future depends on development of winter hardiness, herbicide resistance, and crop insurance.
Rangelands and Non-Rangeland Forages Range research began in 1919; burning, grazing systems, weed and brush control, stocking rates, haying, forage nutritive value, range grass breeding. In 1989, Rannells Flint Hills Prairie Preserve started. Yield and quality of cool season grasses, grass-legume mixtures, summer annuals, wheat pasture, and forage quality.
Weed Science Early field research focused on field bindweed. In 1907, A.M. Ten Eyck first field bindweed control research. In 1928, first research in U.S. on sodium chlorate to control weeds. Early research on 2,4-D herbicide on wheat. Integrated weed management.
International Agriculture Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University in India in late 1950s. Ahmadu Bello University in Nigeria in late 1960s. Central Luzon State University in Philippines in the 1970s. MIAC in Morocco and Botswana in 1980s. INTSORMIL in Botswana in 1980s.
Agronomy Service Programs Foundation Seed Crop Performance Testing Soil Testing Activities
Agronomy Collaborators Kansas Crop Improvement Association USDA Wind Erosion Unit USDA Plant Science and Entomology Natural Resources Conservation Service
K-State Research and Extension K-State Research and Extension has had a collegial working relationship with farmers, ranchers, and various organizations in Kansas. K-State Research and Extension has had a close working relation within the organization linking research and extension even before the merger of AES and CES in 1996.
Undergraduate students Changing courses and curricula to prepare students for wide range of contemporary employment. Many UG students contribute to research programs (80 UG in soybean breeding program during last 30 years). Wheat State Agronomy Club activities. Crop, Soil and Weeds Judging Teams. UG involvement in ASA Student Division. Graduates serving in leadership roles in industry and business in Kansas and nationally.
Graduate Students Research programs of the Department of Agronomy are driven by graduate student theses (819) and dissertations (361). Graduates employed by universities, industry, international universities and research centers around the world. Graduates represent KSU and the department very well at national and international meetings and conferences.
Agronomists’ Contributions Agronomists have provided integration of biological, chemical and physical knowledge into useful production systems and to address environmental issues. Information based on peer-reviewed research programs. Agronomists have done a good job of integrating teaching, extension and research. Information disseminated by teaching and extension programs are science-based information. Critical issues have been addressed with evidence (data). Programs have been accessible; centers have helped this.
Department of Agronomy Accomplishments Department of Agronomy faculty can be proud of how they helped improve crop, forage and rangeland production and efficiency in Kansas. Faculty highly recognized by awards which document national and international reputations(see CD ROM or booklet for complete list). Many of the awards recognize teaching and advising. Teaching was the first function of the land-grant universities in 1862 and it still is today.
The Next 100 Years Continue the strong emphasis on UG and Grad education and advising. Training students at B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. levels critical to agronomy and producing food in a sustainable environment. Continue strong presence in distance education. Continue to develop, integrate, and apply scientific principles to production situations and environmental issues. Peer reviewed science base essential for credibility and program recognition.
Next 100 Years (Continued) Translate research-based information to our customers. Continue to in to integrate 3 missions (T, R, and E) State funded to state supported to state located. Competitive grants necessary to fund programs. Set priorities with strong faculty input; focused areas of excellence; do fewer things; but do them very well.
2005 Crop Yields and Value Crop Harvested Production Value acres M) (bu M) $ B Wheat 9.5 380 1.254 Corn 3.5 466 0.978 Soybeans 2.9 105 0.559 Sorghum 2.6 195 0.317 Alfalfa Hay 0.9 3.4 (Tons) 0.247 Other Hay 2.1 3.2 (Tons 0.177 Sunflowers 0.3 452 (Pounds) 0.046 Cotton 0.07 90,000 (Bales) 0.020