# Agricultural Land use Pattern - Von Thunen Model

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Agricultural Land use Pattern - Von Thunen Model

Introduction Von Thunen Model
 Explain the agricultural landuse at a given location Put the emphasis on economic factors rather than treat physical factors as the main forces  Distance from market

Aim of Von Thunen Model Showing how and why agricultural landuse varies with the distance from the market Economic rent  net return from a unit of land

A. Assumptions of the model
A. Explicit assumptions B. Implicit assumptions

A. Explicit assumptions
1. An isolated state 2. Centrally located market  the sole urban market 3. Isotropic plain  production and transport costs were the same everywhere 4. Uniform transportation and transport costs  Only one form of transport (Wagon)  Increase distance, increase transport cost 5. Farmers are economic men and aim at maximizing profits 6. Same market price

B. Implicit assumptions
1. Land use competition under a capitalistic economy 2. Economic rent is the determining factor 3. Productivity could be raised 4. Steepness of an economic rent curves are governed by the degree of perishability of farm produce and the relative ease of transporting\

B. Implicit assumptions
5. Growing of temperate area crops 6. No catastrophic event 7. No chance factor 8. All parties are price-takers under perfect competition

Why did Von Thunen establish so many assumptions?
Simplify the complex reality

B. Concepts of the models
Economic Rent Distance decay mechanism

A. Economic rent  Net return  Highest bid rent ability
 Displace all others Exercise

A. Economic rent  Net return
= 1. Market price – 2. Production cost – 3. Transport cost 1. Farmers got the same price (revenue) for their crops 2. Production cost = constant 3. Transport cost increase with distance = Net return decreases with increasing distance from the market

Formula for locational rent
EXERCISE!!!

Economic rent --- Conclusion
 Different crops have different location rent distribution patterns (bit rent curves)  Different crops compete with each other’s farmland  Concentric land use pattern was formed

B. Distance decay mechanism
Locational rent decreasing with increasing distance from market

Net return decreases with increasing distance from market
Describe how the net profit from wheat growing varies with distance from the urban market. Net return decreases with increasing distance from market  At the market, transport cost contributes nothing to total cost. As there is no transport cost incurred, net return at market = market price – production cost = \$40 - \$10 = \$30

At point 180km from the market, net return = \$0, farmers would not produce because there is no incentive. Beyond point 180km from market, a loss will be incurred in producing any crops. Thus, farmers would not produce any crops.

Economic Rent + Distance Decay Mechanism
Examination Practice

Starting point = number of unit x (market price – production cost)
(NO TRANSPORT COST) Ending point = The distance that market price = transport cost

Locational rent per unit:
Market price – production cost 12 – 3.5 = 8.5 Transport cost per unit \$7 / 35km = \$8.5 / ?km

Starting point = number of unit x (market price – production cost)
(NO TRANSPORT COST) Ending point = The distance that market price = transport cost

C. Von Thunen Model

Theory of the model A. Intensity Theory
Land use intensity declines with distance from the market. More intensive farming activities tend to locate near the market.  Less intensive farming activities tend to locate far away from the market.

B. Crop Theory Crops with the highest economic rent will be grown. This concept applies to any location.

The landuse pattern

1. Free cash cropping (Market Gardening)
Horticulture (vegetables and fruit) and dairying Perishable as close as possible to market Low speed of transport No refrigeration Require milk and vegetable in city + price are high higher economic rent Intensive labour input, multi-cropping, heavy fertilizing Horse provide motive power

2. Forestry (firewood) Great demand of wood Bulky (heavy and big)
High transport cost = economic rent decrease fast with increase of distance

3. Crop Alternation System (Six-year crop rotation)
Crop without fallowing 6-year crop rotation 2 years of rye (黑麥)+ 1 year potato + 1 year barley (大麥)+ 1 year clover (三葉草)+ 1 year vetch (巢菜) Soil conserved by rotation

4. Improved System (Seven-year crop rotation)
Zone of farming, fallow and pasture Less intensive 7-year crop rotation Rye = 1/7 Barley = 1/7 Oats = 1/7 Pasture = 3/7 Fallow = 1/7 Prodcut: rye, butter, cheese live animals

5. Three-field system 1/3 pasture 1/3 field crop 1/3 fallow Rotation

6. Stock Farming 400km away Extensive grazing activities

D. The modified patterns of the Von Thunen Model

In 1826, Von Thunen noted the followings:
1. Production costs are nothing simple 2. There is no large town that does not lie on a navigable river or canal 3. Competing markets 4. Different places possess different physical factors 5. Farmers do not maximize profits

The modified patterns 1. Additional of a navigable river
Navigable river with lower transport cost

2. A new railway connecting the city and its fringe area
2 or more kinds of transports The actual cost = distance traveled by each method Not physical distance, but economic distance

3. Presence of a subsidiary town as a second market

4. Localized fertile soil or localized infertile soil/ hilly terrain

5. Variation in farmers’ amount of information and their abilities to use the information

6. Famers have their own preference for crops

E. The influence of changes on land use pattern

Market cost and Production cost

Market cost and Production cost
1. Increase in market price and decrease in production cost lead to an increase in profits  expansion of extensive margin 2. Decrease in market cost and increase in production cost lead to an decrease in profits  contraction of extensive margin

Transport cost

Transport cost 3. Transport cost has little effect on farms located near the market 4. Increase in transport cost  contraction of the concentric ring because farms near the extensive margin become unprofitable 5. Decrease in transport cost  extensive margin expand

Summary table of the effects of change in market price, production cost and transport cost
increase decrease Production costs Transport costs Results: Profit levels increase Extensive margin expands Profit levels decrease Extensive margin contracts

F. Merits and Demerits of the model

Merits A. show the importance of economic factors
B. show how does distance affect intensity C. showed the change of agricultural land use pattern (by transport cost) D. first theory to show the spatial distribution of agricultural activities

Demerits A. The assumption that there is the existence of an isolated state or a closed economy is unrealistic in general. B. Ignoring changeover time C. Emergence of specialized regions characterized by a particular type of agricultural land use

Demerits D. In the real world farmers are satisfiers instead of economic men E. Cooperative production could be found F. Neglecting the government policy

Demerits G. Freight rate in reality is not directly proportional to distance but is step-shaped or being divided into different freight rate zones.

Conclusion Merits  succeed in pointing out the transport cost and distance from the market constitute effect on the location of farming activities Demerits  neglected the impact of urbanization on intensity of farming

2. Sinclair Theory A. Introduction

Sinclair Theory - Introduction
Von Thunen’s theory Sinclair Theory Primary force determining the pattern : transport costs Urbanization/Urban expansion intensity decrease with distance Intensity increase with distance Static city with set boundaries City expand quickly

Sinclair Theory - Introduction
In LDC Transport cost  zoning Intensity decrease with distance In MDC technology human organization living habits

Sinclair Theory - Introduction
Transport costs are not directly proportional to distance and bulk refrigeration air-conditioning techniques perishable commodities Modern organization large scale production mass transportation look for markets that are far away not single market, but national market Competition from other land use

Sinclair Theory - Introduction
Industrialized nations  urban expansion, population growth Urban expansion  farming land use Intensity increase with distance Sinclair's theory explains the agricultural pattern near modern urban areas

A. Assumptions of the Model
The Sinclair Model

Explicit Assumptions 1. A uniform plain 2. Farmers are economic men
3. Around and expanding city i.e. Dynamic force 4. Land use pattern is influenced by city’s price mechanism i.e. Urban land value>agricultural land value

Implicit Assumptions 1. The value of agriculture is affected by urban expansion and suburbanization i.e. Population growth →Demand increase →Market price of crops increase 2. Urban and rural land price difference is the main factor affecting rural land use i.e. Urban land is much more valuable than rural land, it can provide the highest economic rent to the farmers.

Implicit Assumptions 3. When the rural land locate near a modern urbanized area, it is anticipated that future land price will increase due to urbanization 4. Land use competition exists between rural and urban areas The types of crops that possess the highest return will displace other land uses.

B. Concepts of the Model The Sinclair Model

(1) How does the agricultural value change in these two models?
In figure A  the agricultural value decrease with increasing distance from the urban center In figure B  The agricultural value increases with increasing distance form the market and it becomes stabilized afterwards

(2) What are the reasons for such changes?
In figure A, the Von thunen model applies.  agricultural land use pattern depends upon the competition among various types of landuse of a particular piece of land.  Economic rent is the controlling factor which is the difference between the total income received by a farmer for a crop grown on a piece of land and the total cost of production plus transport cost of that crop.  Economic rent from any one landuse can be expressed as a function of distance from the market.  The intensity of production of a particular crop will decline with the distance from the market.

In figure B, the Sinclair model can be applied
 which shows the intensity of production increases with increasing distance from the city center. Urban expansion with population growth affects the value of agriculture. Urban land is more valuable than rural land and is able to give the higher bid. Therefore, the agricultural land near the market displaced for urban landuse. Land further away from the market/ C.B.D. is lower in value and is used for farm production.

Highest in regions N onward and lowest at city center
(3) According to Sinclair’s idea, describe the agricultural value of regions O-M, M-N, and N onward. Highest in regions N onward and lowest at city center Urban land use which is more valuable tends to occupy the market area.

(4)  How would such changes in agricultural value (in both models) affect agricultural land uses?
Ring like pattern is resulted in both figure, however, In figure A, farming intensity decrease with increasing distance In figure B, farming intensity increases with increasing distance

A. Different urban and rural land prices
Urban land is much more valuable than agricultural land  Competition between urban land use and rural land use  Urban land use displace rural land use Anticipating urbanization  it is expected that developers and speculators will purchase the land with high price in future  farmers hold the land in rather than having any farming activities

B. Anticipation of urban encroachment is the main determinant in agricultural land use pattern
For the area that is going to be urbanized,  farmers are unwilling to put long-term investment on the farmland  zone of temporary vacant & grazing is resulted Around an expanding city center, agricultural value increases with increasing distance up to a certain distance where the anticipation of urbanization ceases. It remains static afterwards.

C. Intensity of agricultural land use and distance is positively correlated
Anticipation of urbanization increases  absolute value of the land increases  relative value for agricultural utilization decreases As a result, intensity of agricultural land use decreases towards the city

Consolidation exercise
Notes P.11

C. The Sinclair model

Sinclair Theory – The model
Intensity increase with distance Distance and agriculture land use value are in positive relationship

Sinclair Theory – The model

Sinclair Theory – The model
Zone 1 (Urban Farming) Land changing to urban use Subdivided Held by speculators Small production and scattered Using of greenhouse Farm factories  Take place in building / multi-storey buildings

Sinclair Theory – The model
Zone 2 (Vacant & Grazing – Temporary) vacant land and land of temporary grazing land sell to speculators Short -term grazing Short-lived and extensive

Sinclair Theory – The model
Zone 3 (Field Crop & Grazing – Transitory) field crop and grazing zone transitional agriculture with urban anticipation in future do not wish to invest Expensive labour Labour have better pay in city extensive farming

Sinclair Theory – The model
Zone 4 (Dairying & Field Crop) dairying and field crops outside the price mechanism of the city in terms of landuse i.e. not affected by the city major part of fresh milkshed of the metropolitan area

Sinclair Theory – The model
Zone 5 (Specialized Feed-grain Livestock) specialized fee-grain livestock E.g. the Corn Belt not under the direct influence of the metropolitan Serve and be affected by national market

D. Modification of the Model
The Sinclair Model

Modification of the model
1. Urban sprawl/Urban development is chaotic  e.g. Urban sprawl develops along transport network  Two cities may joint together with the above development Affect the ring pattern Inner zone VS outer zone  Elimination of zones within the pattern (particularly the outer zones) 2. Government policy  land use pattern E.g. new towns development in HK

Role of government affecting agricultural pattern
1. Secure a home-grown supply of food in time of war  e.g. Closed door policy in China during the period of Korean War 2. Provide land to the landless farmers  e.g. land reform, reclamation of marginal lands, waste lands and desert lands 3. Builds transport networks to link up farmlands and markets 4. Improve technology to reduce limitation of the physical environment on farming to increase production  e.g. irrigation project in California, introduction of miracle rice in China

Modification of the model

E. Application of the Model
The Sinclair Model

Application in Hong Kong

Application in Hong Kong

1. Describe the changes in the agricultural zones between 1970 and 1980.
Expansion of market Area of abandoned land increased Area of fish ponds increased Expansion of market garden crop Contraction of fresh water paddy Disappearance of brackish paddy

2. How did quick urbanization after 1970 affect such changes?
Expansion of market  Anticipation of urbanization  Urban land use has a higher land value  Agricultural value decreases  Area of abandoned land increased around market  Contraction of fresh water paddy (subsistence farming)

3. Is the Sinclair’s model applicable here?
1. Abandoned land around the market  Anticipation of urbanization 2. Urbanization has induced the conversion of most paddy fields in subsistence farms into commercial garden farms  Higher intensity near the market

Conclusion Generally speaking, the pattern conforms in a broad sense to the prediction of Von Thunen’s model but modifications by Sinclair is also applicable to the case of Hong Kong.  Government policy  Physical factors i.e. relief, availability of water also play important role in affecting agricultural pattern in HK

Comparison of the Von Thunen Model and the Sinclair Model

Von Thunen Model (a static model) Sinclair Model (a dynamic model) (A) Main Principle Transport cost proportional to distance from market Base on economic rent Intensity decrease with increasing distance from market Anticipation of urban encroachment Base on agriculture value Intensity increase with increasing distance from metropolitan area (B)Assumptions/condition -One market -Uniform pattern -Economic man -Perfect competition -Backward transport -Isolated state -World-wide market -Uniform plain -Advanced and improved transport and technology -Change of dietary habit for more fresh, expensive and exotic food -Mass production and transportation -Urbanization and expansion of metropolitan area

Von Thunen Model (a static model) Sinclair Model (a dynamic model) (C) Cropping pattern zone 1: Horticulture zone 2: Wood zone 3: 6-year rotation zone 4: 7-year rotation zone 5: 3-field system zone 6: stock farming Urban farming Vacant and grazing Field crop and grazing Dairying and field crop Specialized feed grain livestock (D) Production Methods Production intensity decreases with increasing distance from market Production intensity increases with increasing distance from the metropolitan area uo to a certain point

Von Thunen Model (a static model) Sinclair Model (a dynamic model) (E) Key Concepts Locational/ economic rent Distance decay relationship Competition of land for urban uses Value of agricultural landuse Locational rent for urban and agricultural uses Distance increase relationship (F) Modifications Small town as another market Navigable river Zones of fertile land Farmer’s preference Government etc Chaotic urban sprawl/ may eliminate the utter zone of agricultural activities Government

Von Thunen Model (a static model) Sinclair Model (a dynamic model) (G) Application Real world examples: Intensity of agriculture in Western Europe still applies in underdeveloped parts of the world Difficulties: Oversimplified Outdated Fail to recognise the role of government Fail to include behavior factors Applicability in Hong Kong Metropolitan areas of US midwest applies to industralized society Oversimplication of assumptions Pattern of urban sprawl Dynamic nature of agricultural landuse Government policy

Impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the farming pattern

Industralization  Process by which manufacturing industries develop from within a predominantly agrarian society  Application of scientific methods to solving problems  Accompanied by social and economic changes such as increase in birth rate, rise in per capita GNP

Urbanization  Migration of rural population into towns and cities
 An increasing proportion of the world’s population resides in towns  Indicates a change of employment structure from agriculture to mass production and service industries Industralization Leads to Urbanization!!!

(A) Alteration of farming Production
Traditional farming methods (subsistence)  modern farming methods (commercial) Positive impacts: increase output, solve food problem Negative impacts: disrupt ecosystem, pollution Increase in total crop yield and variety/ Low production cost Positive impacts: increase total yield, diversification of crops, stable income, improve living standard Negative impacts: health impact

(B) Alteration in rural land uses
Change in general land use pattern Farmlands change to urban uses e.g. commercial, industrial, residential, transportation etc. Positive impacts: economic development Negative impacts: lost of potential farmland

Change in agricultural land use pattern
Area of market gardening, fish ponds increase Positive impacts: diversification of crops, stable income Negative impacts: decrease production in traditional crops e.g. paddy rice Increase abandoned land Farmlands are being held for speculative purpose due to the anticipation of urbanization Positive impacts: None Negative impacts: lands cannot be fully utilized, waste of resources

(C) Alteration in the structure of rural population
Rural-urban migration People move from rural to urban due to the higher living standard and more job opportunities found in the urban area Positive impacts: None Negative impacts: Increase the number of economic inactive groups in the rural area, unbalanced sexual ratio

Urban-rural migration
People move from urban to rural due to the availability of flatland and pollution-free environments Positive impacts: problem of urban congestion could be solved Negative impacts: increase rural population, increase landuse competition

Case study: Hong Kong Alteration of rural landuses RESULTS:
Mainland China was liberated in 1949 Influx of refugees Accelerates Hong Kong’s population growth New towns established  E.g. Tsuen Wan, Shatin, Tuen Mun RESULTS: Construction of towns and roads leads to a great loss of arable land Farm abandonment Rural decay E.g. rural labour force in Sai Kung North is shrinking

Alteration in the structure of rural population
Farmers lay the land in fallow on purpose of hoping to gain better return Better job opportunities attracts young rural population Rural-Urban migration RESULTS: Labour shortage in the rural area Aging of rural population Increase the dependency ratio

Alteration in farming production
Increase in urban population Increase demand of certain kinds of farm products e.g. fish, fresh vegetables and flowers RESULTS: From rice field and pig raising to market gardening and fish ponds

Newspaper Article---SAR Pig farms in mainland sought to stabilize supply (standard) 07/07 sat
A lawmaker and some pig farmers have urged the government to help Hong Kong farmers establish farms in the mainland to ensure the city gets a steady supply pork at stable prices. Proposal: designating a special area in the mainland for Hong Kong pig farmers operations 90% of farmers have surrendered their licenses, and 249 of the 265 registered local pig farms have been closed.

Another example: HKAL 2003, Paper 2, #6
With reference to one of the farming regions in China, discuss the effect of market forces on agriculture in the last two decades. As a result of the Go West Policy, what would the impact of rural industrialization be on agriculture in western China?

Positive impacts: Negative impacts:
With Go West Policy, more resources are used for developing interior provinces of China such as Gansu Province Positive impacts: Farm labours shift to rural industries. Solve the problem of low production Development of industries such as food processing industries create demand for farm products Income from rural industries may be invested in farms and promote farm modernization Negative impacts: Labour shortage Loss of arable land due to dramatic development of industries Pollutions affect water for irrigation; soil degradation from water and land pollution reduces farm productivity

Impact of Globalization on farming

Discussion Positive impacts Negative impacts Possible remedies
Effectiveness

Positive impacts 1. Allow trading among countries
2. Countries could practice specialized farming according to their comparative advantage 3. Improving farm efficiency by advanced technology

Negative impacts 1. Promotion of farm commercialization
 Rely heavily on biotechnology 2. Elimination of small-scale farms in LDCs by farm specialization in MDCs  Trading of farm products among countries is needed 3. Impact on natural ecosystem 4. Affect the local people’s livelihood  Small scale farms would be exploited by transnationals  Lower farm wages in LDCs because Local agricultural products are less competitive

Possible remedies 1. Provide subsidies 2. Improve infrastructure
3. Reduce taxes 4. Develop collective farms 5. Provide technological assistance 6. Provide assistance

Effectiveness Measures not effective in LDCs  poor government
 farmers are having low educational level  Lack of market awareness  badly-skilled  Reluctant to make changes  Lack of capital

Farm Technology

Green Revolution Improvement in farming methods due to technological improvement

Farm technology 1. Mechanization 2. Application of agro-chemicals
3. Irrigation 4. Drainage 5. Greenhouse farming 6. GM crops 7. Global positioning system (GPS) 8. Geographic information system (GIS) 9. Satellite/Aerial photo

1. Mechanization

Farm mechanization Processes that can be mechanized due to advancement of farming technology substitution for man power increasing agricultural productivity extending agriculture to marginal land

Machines for cultivation, harvesting and processing of crops
Examples ONLY! (DO NOT COPY!!!) Ploughing machines and tractors Sowing machines Transplanting machines Electricity operated pumps to draw water from nearby rivers e.g. plain of East China Sprinkler Helicopters  broadcasting seeds systems/ watering crops Spraying machines  Fertilization of soils Combine harvesters  Harvesting crops Conveyer belts  Selection of fruits for sale Trains and trunks  Transport crops

Machines for rearing animals and harvesting animal products
Examples ONLY! (DO NOT COPY!!!) Air conditioning  lower the temperature in summers Heaters  raise the temperature in winters Pipes, tapes and electric pumps  provides drinking water for animals Electric shearers  wool cutting Milking machines and refrigerated tankers  keeping the milk fresh Lorries with refrigeration facilities  transporting highly perishable products to nearby urban markets e.g. milk tankers

Effects of farming mechanization
Farm size  enlarged and made less fragmented Farmland  opening of some marginal lands for cultivation Higher efficiency of each worker  quicken farming operation, more cropping in a year and farm yield and profits also increases Rural-urban migration  rapid rural-urban migration/ depopulation in rural are Supply of workers  solve the problem of labour shortage in MDCs Higher productivity and quality of products Lower cost of production  cheaper in long term

Problems of farm mechanization
Unemployment Machine management  Deterioration of machines due to lack of maintenance  Inappropriate use of machine Uneven mechanization High initial cost of farm machines  Poor farmers in LDCs

2. Application of agro-chemicals

What is agro-chemicals?
Fertilizers Pesticides Insecticides Herbicides

Why use agro-chemicals?
1. Control insects which eat food crops 2. Suppress weeds which complete with crops 3. Increase both quantity and quality of food crops  Improve quality: improve human health  Improve quantity: solve the world food problem

Use of pesticides = “Intensification” of farmland
 Enable greater food production  without the expansion of agricultural land  Increase farm inputs on a given area of farmland

Problems with pesticides
 Destroy natural and semi-natural habitats  Pesticides are toxic  Harmful to human health and wildlife  Effects on target pests and non-target species  e.g. Affect beneficial organisms like honey bees  Contamination of water source  Contamination of food chains  Affecting drinking water supply

Strategies for tackling the problems
 Develop target-specific pesticides  Control losses to water  Enforce adequate handling and application procedures  Organic farming

For and Against GM crops

7. Global positioning system (GPS) 8
7. Global positioning system (GPS) 8. Geographic information system (GIS)

Why use GIS and GPS? Allow better farm management
Collect, store view and analyze vast amount of data Allow better farm management Improving soil conservation practice Improving efficiency  e.g. precise application of chemicals and fertilizers  e.g. precise application of irrigation water  Over-application and Over irrigation could be avoided

Bio-fuels Discussion Alternative energy resource
Ethanol extracted from corn and sugarcane Discussion 1. Advantages? 2. Disadvantages? 3. What are the reasons for the increasing price for agricultural products?

Bio-fuels Advantages:  alleviating Global warming  Clean  Renewable
 Environmentally friendly  Clean/ Non-toxic  Less carbon dioxide and sulphur emission  Easy to handle

Disadvantages:  bid up the price for food such as corn, sugarcane as demand increase  the poor cannot afford  leading to the occurrence of famine in less developed countries  unpredictable environmental consequence  Still release a certain amount of greenhouse gases

Reasons for the increasing price for agricultural products
1. Increase in demand  population growth 2. Agricultural land use decrease  urbanization  in producing bio-fuels, land is specially designed for growing crops

Further information……
7 April 2008 Time Magazine Cover story

In recent years, there have been significant changes in oil price
In recent years, there have been significant changes in oil price. As a result, more farmers are involved in the development of alternative energy resources such as biofuels. How may the changing oil price in recent years affect the global crop production? To what extent is the increasing oil price a factor leading to the occurrence of famine in less developed countries? Suggest measures that can be carried out by governments to regulate the production of biofuels. Illustrated your answer with appropriate examples.

Difficulties concerned with the application of technology in farming
Poor subsistence farmers  cannot afford very costly inputs Low educational level  Resistance to innovation Small and fragmented farms  Hinder the adoption of machines Lack of communication with the outside world

Essay question 2006#7 Advanced farming technology such as remote sensing, soil sampling and information management can help optimize agricultural production. Farmers will therefore be able to recognize differences in the field and to apply correct quantities of inputs in the right place at the right time. What are the ecological and economic advantages of using this advanced farming technology? Explain the conditions needed for the adoption of this technology. To what extent is such technology applicable in China?

Section A – Natural Landscape A1– Climatic System
Energy budget Atmospheric moisture Atmospheric circulation Climatic variation A2 – Landform System Plate tectonics Drainage system A3 – Biotic System Ecosystem Soils Vegetation A4 – Man-environment relationship Tropical rainforest environment Tropical desert environment B. Agricultural Landscape B1 – Farming systems Farming as an ecological system Farming as an economic system B2 – Spatial patterns Von Thunen model/concepts Sinclair model/concepts B3 – Impacts of urbanization and industrialization on farming

Exam Paper 1 Map Reading 1/1 Section B 3/5 Section C 1/2 Total 5/9