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France. Geography Location Located in Western Europe Borders the Bay of Biscay and English Channel Between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the United.

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Presentation on theme: "France. Geography Location Located in Western Europe Borders the Bay of Biscay and English Channel Between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the United."— Presentation transcript:

1 France

2 Geography

3 Location Located in Western Europe Borders the Bay of Biscay and English Channel Between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the United Kingdom Bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain


5 Climate Generally cool winters and mild summers, Mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean Occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to- northwesterly wind known as mistral

6 Terrain Mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west Remainder is mountainous, especially in Pyrenees in the south and the Alps in the East Land utility For farming –Arable land: 33.46% permanent crops: 2.03% permanent pastures: 20% forests and woodland: 27% other: 18%

7 Environment Natural Resources Coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorospar, gypsum, timber and fish Natural hazards: Flooding Avalanches Midwinter windstorms Drought and forest fires in south near the Mediterranean Current issues: Some forest damage from acid rain Air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions Water pollution from urban wastes and agricultural runoff

8 Regions of France The French Republic has 4 overseas territories due to its history as a colonial power. They have the same status as metropolitan regions, much like Hawaii’s equal status to a continental U.S. state. They are overseas départements (département d'outre-mer, or DOM, with the same status as a département of metropolitan France These overseas departments, unlike overseas collectivities, are represented in National Assembly, Senate and Economic and Social Council, elect a Member of the European Parliament, (MEP), and also use the Euro as their currency.

9 French Guiana Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname Climate: Tropical; hot, humid Little seasonal temperature variation Terrain: Low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains Farmland: arable land 0.13%, permanent crops 0.04%, other 99.83% (90% forest, 10% other) Natural Resources: gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum and clay

10 Martinique Location: Caribbean Island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds Moderately high humidity, rainy season, June to October Vulnerable to devastating cyclone, hurricanes, every eight years on average Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano Farmland: arable land 9.09%, permanent crops 10.0%, other 80.91%

11 Guadeloupe Location: Caribbean Islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity Rainy season, June to October, Vulnerable to devastating cyclones, hurricanes, every eight years on average Terrain: volcanic in origin with interior mountains

12 Reunion Location: Southern Africa Island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar Climate: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation Cool and cry, May to November Hot and rainy, November to April Terrain: mostly Rugged and Mountainous, fertile lowlands along coast Farmland: arable land 13.94%, permanent crops 1.59%, other 84.47%

13 History The name France comes from the Latin word Francia which means “land of the Franks” or “Frankland”

14 Gaul The region of modern France is approximately the same as the ancient country called Gaul 1 st century BC Gaul captured by Julies Caesar 2 nd – 3 rd century AD Roman culture had been incorporated into society 4 th century AD the eastern border of Gaul around the Rhine was taken over by Germanic tribes, mostly by the Franks 843 AD the Treaty of Verdun ended Charlemagne’s control of France. The treaty divided the Charlemagne’s Carolingian Empire into three parts, Easter Francia, Middle Francia, Western Francia Modern France is composed of the land of Western Francia

15 France France was ruled by Carolingians until 987 AD when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France The French monarchy reached its peak with Louis XIV 1789: French Revolution ended the rule of the monarchy. During the revolution, the monarchs King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed

16 Napoleon Bonaparte 1799: Napoleon Bonaparte gained control of the Republic Bonaparte named himself Emperor of the First French Empire (1804 – 1814) 1815: Battle of Waterloo, Bonaparte's defeat and exile Afterwards, France transitioned through a series of republics and empires

17 Timeline of Republics and Empires 1870-1940: French Third Republic 1848 – 1852: French Second Republic 1792 – 1804: French Republic 1804 – 1814: French First Empire Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon I 1946-1958: French Fourth Republic 1852-1870: French Second Empire Emperor Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, aka Napoleon III 1958 - Present: French Fifth Republic 178018001820184018601880190019201940196019802000

18 Important Wars 1789 – 1799: French Revolution July 18, 1815: Battle of Waterloo Bonaparte's defeat July 19, 1870 - May 10, 1871: Franco-Prussian War 1914 – 1918: World War I 1939 – 1945: World War II December 1946 - August 1954: First Indochina War French Revolution

19 Military Branches: Army Navy Air Force National Gendarmerie No longer constrictive service. Minimum eligible age is 17. Women are able to serve however as non-combative units. The current available service members are: males age 17-49: 13,676,509 females age 17-49: 13,504,539 (CIA 2005 est.) They spend an approximated 2.6% of their GDP on military. This amounts to: $48,646,000,000,000

20 Culture

21 Literature and Poetry The French language was not yet a uniform language but it was split up into several oil dialects French literature originated in the Middle Ages Including: Tristan and Iseult and Lancelot-Grail Much of French poetry was influenced by the Matter of France, a tale of epics French Poetry: Perrout de Saint Cloude’s “Roman de Renart”

22 Arthur François Rabelais’s work was very influential to the French language Chrétien de Troyes was an important writer from the Medieval times 18th and 19th century, during the Renaissance, was the height of French literature and poetry Writers like Voltaire and Jean Jacques-Rousseau emerged Famous French literature: The Three Musketeers, The Count of Monte Cristo, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Famous Literature and Authors

23 Sports Popular sports include basketball, handball, rugby union, and football (soccer) France hosts the annual Tour de France Most famous road bicycle race in the world France is also famous for the 24 Hours of Le Mans competition It is a sports car endurance race The national football team and national rugby team are nicknamed “Les Bleus,” the blues

24 Marianne Marianne is the symbol of the French Republic. She represents liberty and appeared during the French Revolution

25 Mont Saint Michel is a site in France that is popular to tourists The Eiffel Tower is a major landmark in Paris, France The Palais des papes (Palace of popes) in Avignon is also a major landmark. Mont Saint Michel Palais des papes Eiffel Tower Landmarks

26 Food French cuisine: Emphasis on famous French wine Champagne, coming from the Champagne region of France Cheeses Produces over 400 kinds of cheeses Cooking styles. The most exquisite cuisines are called haute cuisine.

27 Art Painting by Claude Monet Art in ancient France can be traced back to the Paleolithic age (10,000 – 32,000 yrs ago). Cave paintings have been found in Altamira, Font de Gaume, Lascaux, Les Combarelles, Niaux Cave and Les Trois Frères. Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet are among the most famous painters from France. They were part of the impressionist art movement in Europe

28 Important Facts about Culture The French national flag was made during the French Revolution. It is a tricolor flag with vertical bands of blue, white, and red. The flag was made famous by Marquis de Lafayette The origin of the French kingdom is dated to 496 because it marks three important features of the country which are: The definition of a territorial boundary The definition of a power rule (succession by heir) The definition of a social system 3 groups of people: warriors, priests, and workers France’s motto is “Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité’ (Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood) Since 1880, the national holiday of France is the Fête Nationale (National Holiday). It is celebrated on the 14th of July. It celebrates the Fête de la Fédération..

29 Demographics Total population: 62, 752, 136 Language: French 100% with rapidly declining regional dialects and languages of Povencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish Birthrate of 11.99 births/1,000 population and death rate of 9.14 deaths/1,000 population Religion: Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5-10%, unaffiliated 4% Race: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities Country’s population sharply increased with the baby boom following World War II

30 French Republic

31 Republiqe Francaise (The French Republic) France is a republic with Paris as her capital. (The fifth republic) The nation is composed of twenty-six regions, four of which are overseas. Of the 22 regions, there are 96 metropolitan departments. Independence- 486 AD

32 Bastille Day Bastille Day, 14 July 1790 is the National Holiday. Contrary to popular belief, Bastille Day celebrates the first anniversary following the storming of the Bastille in 1789.

33 The French Republic France has universal suffrage with minimum age of eighteen. Women attained suffrage in 1944. Accepted currency: the Euro, adopted on 1 January 2002 4 October 1958 the French constitution enacted and revised in 1962.

34 The French Republic The three branches of government include the executive, legislative and judicial. The president is elected every five years. President Chirac has been in power since 1995.  The prime minister is appointed by the president and confirmed by the parliament. Dominique De Villepin is the current prime minister. President Chirac (front) and Dominique De Villepin (back)

35 The French Republic The parliament comprises of a National Assembly and Senate. The National Assembly is directly elected by the French people with 577 members in five year terms. Through an electoral college, 318 are elected to the Senate with nine year terms and one third up of seats are up for election. A constitutional council provides as a check system for the parliament. Members of this council are appointed. The French National Assembly (Paris)

36 The French Republic The court system is set in civil law. A case can move from courts, courts of appeal, and as the court of last resort, Cour de cassation. Other courts in France include Conseil d’Etat, which accepts administrative cases (which Cour de cassation holds no jurisdiction) Courts of Assizes which tries crimes of severity through three judges and nine jurors. Those tried are presumed innocent until proven guilty.

37 Political Parties Rassemblement pour la République (Chirac’s party) The Socialist party Union pour la Democratie Française French Communist party French Communist Party Headquarters

38 Government Organizations European Union (EU) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) United Nations Security Council permanent member. World Trade Organization World Health Organization OSCE, International Labor Organization G-5, G-7, G-8, and G-10.

39 Government Organizations, cont’d Under the UN Security council, from 1946-2003 France has used her veto power eighteen times. France is also an original member of the European Union (beginning in 1957) which was originally title as the European Community. France and Germany have strengthened their relationship since WWII, encouraging stronger defenses of the EU.

40 French Flag The flag is known as “Le drapeau tricolore”.

41 Economics

42 Economics France has one of the higher income equality indexes in the world with a Gini index of 26.7 –Inflation rate: 1.5% Agricultural Products: machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism Just over 48 million people have cell phones in France and there are 35.7 million hard telephone lines. 29.5 million use the internet.

43 French Economy The 2006 GDP is $1.871 trillion France has a labor force of 27.88 million people with an unemployment rate of 8.7% in 2006 In 2004, 6.2% of the population lived below the poverty line. 0.2% industrial growth rate

44 French Exports machinery and transportation equipment aircraft plastics chemicals pharmaceutical products iron and steel beverages

45 French Imports Germany 18.9% Belgium 10.7% Italy 8.3% Spain 7% Netherlands 6.6% UK 5.9% US 5.1%

46 All Sources "France." The World Factbook: CIA. 15 Mar. 2007. 20 Mar. 2007. "France." World Perspective Monde. 20 Mar. 2007. "French Government." Discover France. 20 Mar. 2007. "Government of France." Wikipedia. 16 Mar. 2007. 20 Mar. 2007. "France/Transnational Issues." Wikipedia. 20 Mar. 2007. France." Wikipedia. 19 Mar. 2007. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 20 Mar. 2007. "Culture of France." Travour.Com. 2006. 20 Mar. 2007. "Geography of France." Wikipedia. 16 Mar. 2007. 20 Mar. 2007. "France." The World Factbook: CIA. 15 Mar. 2007. 20 Mar. 2007. "France." World Perspective Monde. 20 Mar. 2007. "French Government." Discover France. 20 Mar. 2007. "Government of France." Wikipedia. 16 Mar. 2007. 20 Mar. 2007. "France/Transnational Issues." Wikipedia. 20 Mar. 2007. France." Wikipedia. 19 Mar. 2007. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 20 Mar. 2007. "Culture of France." Travour.Com. 2006. 20 Mar. 2007. "Geography of France." Wikipedia. 16 Mar. 2007. 20 Mar. 2007.

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