Presentation on theme: "1 AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY Ch. Künast, BASF SE & M. Riffel, RIFC ON GmbH Agricultural landscapes and ecosystem dynamics Birds in agricultural landscapes."— Presentation transcript:
1 AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY Ch. Künast, BASF SE & M. Riffel, RIFC ON GmbH Agricultural landscapes and ecosystem dynamics Birds in agricultural landscapes Options for private initiatives
2 Agricultural Landscape in Germany (Oberpfalz) Aus: A. Ringler (1987)
3 Agricultural Landscape in Germany (Oberpfalz, some years earlier) Aus: A. Ringler (1987)
4 Agricultural Landscape in Germany (“Einsamer Baum” (“Lonely Tree”) about 1820) C. D. Friedrich
5 What do these Pictures tell? Any a griculture has per se a deep impact on ecosystems and thus on biodiversity. Farming practices and agricultural ecosystems and herewith biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is highly dynamic. Changes can be fast and will continue. Driving forces should be seen in a social and economic context.
6 Dynamics will Continue Development of global markets and new farming practices, and innovative inventions, and land use for biofuel... Global human population growth Global climate change
7 What is “Biodiversity”? Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and ecosystems. Source: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, June 3 to June 14, 1992
8 How to Quantify Biodiversity? Source Flindt, 1995 There are by far more. Counting all is not a solution. Known animal species numbers
9 Why Focus on Birds? Birds should be seen as protection goals, since … … birds are important parts of several relevant documents, such as Red Lists, Bird Protection Guidelines etc. … bird protection is core for nature conservation. Birds are widely used as indicator organisms, since … … life-histories and biology are well understood … they are taxonomically well-described and stable … they occupy a wide range of habitats … they are responsive to environmental changes… The indicator relevance has limitations, since … … birds may adapt to environmental changes … there are many species specific parameters … responses may be “multifactorial” and difficult to interpret…
10 Trends of Farmland Bird Populations in Europe - Species with Declining Numbers Skylark (Alauda arvensis) Grey partridge (Perdix perdix) Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) Source: European Bird Census Council (EBCC)
11 Trends of Farmland Bird Populations in Europe - Species with Increasing or Relatively Stable Numbers Source: European Bird Census Council (EBCC) Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio) Whitestork (Ciconia ciconia) Cirl bunting (Emberiza cirlus)
12 Overall Development Trends of 33 Farmland Bird Species in EU Source: European Bird Census Council (EBCC)
13 Birds may Successfully Utilize open Agricultural Landscapes as Resting Habitats, for Overwintering, Foraging etc. Close collaboration of farmers, hunters, conservationists, landowners are key success factors Development of Wintering Geese and Swan Num- bers Between 1980 and 2005 in Parts of Germany
14 Management Programs have been Developed for a Multitude of Birds Successful implementation depend clearly on private initiatives Political framework and support is needed
15 Contribution of the Plant Protection Industry ETE = Estimated Theoretical Exposure (mg/kg b.w./d) = daily dose = FIR/bw * (AR * C 0 ) / (Load) * DF * MAF * f twa * PT * PD * AV - FIR / b.w. = food intake/ body weight - AR = application rate - C 0 = initial residue concentration - DF = deposition factor - MAF = multiple application factor - f twa = time-weighted average factor - PT = proportion diet in treated area (1) - PD = proportion of feed items (1) - AV = avoidance factor E xposure Sophisticated risk assessments combine exposure data with the ecology of relevant bird species. The compatibility of bird protection and PPP use is confirmed on field stations. Birds
16 Concluding Remarks Birds may find their own way. Many bird species successfully inhabit current farmland biotopes. “Yes, we can!” A wealth of management measures for protected, rare or declining birds is available. Implementation requires close cooperation with “The Private Sector”. The only constant is change. Macroecological parameters (like climate change) and macroecomic parameters (like such depending on human population growth or consumption changes) will further drive changes in agricultural practices. How much change is acceptable, how much conservation is needed ?
18 In Agricultural Landscapes, Farming and Biodiversity are Inevitably Linked since … … crops and livestock are part of biodiversity … farming needs biodiversity (“ecological services”) …farming influences biodiversity
19 Trends of biodiversity Pheasant Fallow deer Norwegian rat Raccoon Musk rat Coypu Sikadeer etc. Bluegill Channel catfish Mudminnow Swan goose etc. Mandarin duck Rose-ringed parakeet Sibirian chipmunk etc. Great flamingo Egyptian goose Bullfrog Topmouth gudgeon Ruddy shelduck Black swan Is biodiversity really decreasing ? 423 20 31 24 12 6 19 39 29 9 23 3 18
20 There are New Birds around the Farms “Neozoans” may originate from birds which escaped from captivity, some establish stable populations, other may come “by themselves”
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