2Contents Introduction Agricultural Systems Impacts of Urbanization and Industrialization on Agricultural Landscapes
3Introduction Importance of Agriculture The Landscapes of Medium Human ImpactFilm 1Film 2
4Importance of Agriculture Agriculture refers to the raising of crops and livestock by man to produce useful commodities.It is a economic activity and the most basic of all.Food supply, raw materials for industry2/3 people are engaged in various forms of agriculture all over the world.It is a way of life.Agricultural land occupies 33% of the earth’s land surface. (11% cropland, 22% pasture)Farms products are very important elements in world trade. (many countries cannot produce enough food for their own needs)
5Influence of the Environment Physical factors set outer limits to farming (temperature, rainfall, landforms, soil types,growing season….)Physical factors determine the outer boundaries for the production of particular crops or animals and the areas of optimum yields. (rice, wheat, sugar cane, dairying, …….)
6Impacts on the Environment Farmer is constantly modifying the natural environment.Clear the forest, planting, plough land, sow crops, adding fertilizers… New landscapeUse a unsuitable farming method in the environment and causes serious consequencesOver-cropping and over-grazing cause soil erosionUsing chemical fertilizers and pesticides gain enormous benefits and environment pollution (Eutrophication)
7Impacts on the Environment cont’d Man is increasingly trying various methods of overcoming the physical environmentModified soil: terrace, wet lowlands drained, coastlands reclaimed, adding chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides)New varieties of plants and animalsRequirement: large input of capital and labour (extremely high cost)Developed countries can lessen to some extent the influence of physical environment.
8Agricultural systems Human organized system Ecological systemEconomic systemClassification of World AgriculturePhysical components affecting agricultureCultural components affecting agriculture
9Human organized system Agriculture is a organized system is which man applies his skills to the natural environment for economic gain.Inputs (organized natural and human inputs)Natural elementsLandforms, climate, soil, ….Human elementsLevel of civilization, social organization, technological and management skills, political organization
10Human organized system - cont’d OutputsCrops and animal productsArable farmingPlant crops: rice, wheat, rubber,…..Livestock farmingAnimal products: meat, wool, milk,…..(Herding, grazing, ranching, pastoralism)Mixed farmingBoth plant and animal productsEg. Australia’s wheat-sheep farming
11Human organized system – cont’d Man-land combinations vary considerably from place to place and forms various agricultural systemsCommercial agricultural systemHuman inputs > natural inputsFor food, manufacturing and urbanDeveloped countriesSubsistence agricultural systemNatural inputs > human inputsFor local tribal or village communitiesDeveloping countries
12Human organized system – cont’d DynamicsMan can alter the human inputs and natural inputs.Human inputs:cultural inputs, fertilizers, pesticidesHis activities will modify the natural environment (natural inputs)Conscious:irrigation, greenhouse,….Unconscious: climate changes
13Ecological system Farm is a manipulated ecosystem For yields (desired products)Provide the most favourable conditions for the plants and animals he wishes to produce.
15Ecological system – Energy Flow Natural ecosystemOnly source of energy from the sunLiving plant tissues use up about 0.02% of the total energy inputEnergy transfer:Start from photosynthesis and passed along food chains, released in the form of heat to environmentAgricultural ecosystemEnergy sources: sun + various energy inputsSubsistence farming system: animate energyCommercial farming system: fossil fuel energy
16Ecological system - Energy Flow Energy from human environment greatly depend on the culture of societiesDeveloping countriesSimple hand tools (shifting cultivators)Developed countriesPetrol oil for vehicles, tractors, combined-harvesters and chemicals
17Ecological system – Energy Flow Energy efficiencyEnergy Yield Ratio=energy output / energy inputSource of EnergyExampleEnergy Yield RatioHigh Energy systemSolar energy, Vast inputs of fossil fuelsFarms in USA, Western Europe….0.38:1LowMedium Energy systemEnergy input from the sun, wind & use of animalsWet rice cultivation in Asia4:1MediumLow Energy SystemSolar energy mostlyShifting cultivation in SE Asia, Pastoral nomads16:1High
18Ecological system – Nutrient Cycle NaturalNutrients circulate within the ecosystem.Nutrients are replaced again and again within different parts of the ecosystem.Agricultural systemNutrients may be removed entirely by prolonged cropping without compensating fertilizer input.Nutrients may be heavily subsidized by input of chemical fertilizers.Nutrients can be unavailable or accumulate to toxic level.
19Ecological system - Stability NaturalSolar energy drive energy flow and nutrients cycle.Complex ecological linkages with a great variety of plants and animal species.(biodiversity)It is self-maintained and stable.Agricultural systemEnergy flow and nutrients cycle are drive by solar energy and human energy inputsFewer crops and animals or even monocultureIt is maintained by much human effort so it is unstable comparatively.
20Economic system Inputs as capital and human effort Investment (inputs)Form of moneyForm of labourOutputs as financial gainFarmers need to make decision about how much they are going to invest and in what aspects they are going to invest.
21Economic system – decision making Key questions?What to produce?How much to produce?How to produce?How much to invest?What to hire or lease?How much to hire or lease?Where and how to buy?Where and how to sell?
22Economic system – decision making Differences in land use, cropping, use of biological inputs, total outputs and farming methods…etc. are the result of decision by farmers.Agricultural patterns are the sum of total millions of individual decisions taken by farmers.Decision making is a process which is influenced byBehavioural elementsChance elementsPerception level of the decision makersPersonal background (social, cultural, educational..)Information and abilityPast experiencePerception of the environment will affect the decision they make. But the final goal is profit satisfaction.
23Economic system – decision making Decisions result in action which may result in land use patterns, wealth or poverty.Wealth economic surplus innovationPoverty stagnation
24Economic system – decision making AustraliaCommercial economyEntrepreneursHeavy investment (human and cultural inputs)For sale (foodstuff, industry, urban)GlobalizeResponse to marketsPapua New GuineaSubsistence economyFarmersMinimum investment (human and cultural inputs)For tribal or village consumptionLocalizeResponse to natural conditions
25Economic system – decision making We have general assumption that all farmers aim at maximizing their outputs.In fact, they very often do notReasons:They haven’t knowledge to make the best use of landThey haven’t enough information and ability to use info.They cannot afford fertilizers or machinerySocial customs may work against improvementPersonal characteristicsFarmers are satisfiersFarmers may be conservative and consider a low degree of riskFarmers don’t want the extra work and they want to have more leisure time.Others
26Classification of World Agriculture Arable farming: Growing cropsPastoral farming: Rearing animalsMixed farming: Growing crops and rearing animalsCommercial farming: For sale and exchangeSubsistence farming: For farmer’s own familyCash-cropping: Growing cash-cropsLarge-scale farming: Undertake on large farmsSmall-scale farming: undertake on small farmsIntensive and Extensive farming:Refer to the amount of combined labour and capital inputs per unit of area farmland
27Classification of World Agriculture Extensive FarmingLow volume of inputs per hectare (both natural and human)Low man-land ratioLow density of rural populationFarmland is plentiful or land is cheapRemote to marketsSmall output per hectareEg. N. American and AustraliaIntensive FarmingHigh volume of inputs per hectare (both natural and human)High man-land ratioHigh density of rural populationSmall farmland or land is very expensiveFarmland close to marketLarge output per hectareEg. SE Asia, China, Japan Netherlands, New Zealand
28Physical components affecting agriculture Physical environment affects the location and intensity of farming systemIt may limit the range of farming systems that can be carried out at a given site.Physical componentsClimate:Precipitation, snow, temperature, frost, wind, light and cloud coverRelief:Soil
29Climate - precipitation Annual total rainfall: It determines types of crops>2000mm (rice, rubber..)400~800mm (wheat)Seasonal distribution: It determines types of cropsRice (heavy rain for quick growth, but dry season for harvesting)Excess water soil erosionHeavy rain or flood wash away young seedlingsWaterlogged soil damages plant rootsDeficient rain or drought seasons need irrigation and other forms of water supply
30Climate - temperatureIt determines various type of crops from equatorial (eg. Rice and rubber) to cool temperate regions (eg. Sugar beet)Germination and ripening of seeds require at least 5.7oCDifferent crops need different accumulated temperature (Wheat needs a threshold temperature 5oC for 1300 days)Each type of crop has its own hot and cold limitFrost is especially damaging for vegetables and fruitFrost free days (growing days between last spring frost and the first winter frostDifferent crops need different frost free daysSpring wheat: 90 daysCorn: 150 daysCotton: 200 daysRubber: hot climate for all year
31Climate – snow and light Light snow cover can protects the soil from erosion by wind and rain.It has insulating effects for some crops (winter wheat)Spring thaw gives moisture to soilLight:Different crops need different amount of light for photosynthesisSunlight is particularly significant for fruit ripeningLow humidity enable drying of fruitSome tropical crops (coffee) require high temperature but cannot grow under direct strong sunlight. Then cover crops (banana) are planted to give shade.
32Climate - Wind Wind erosion is severe in semi-arid and arid regions Typhoons bring serious damages to cropsConstant strong winds make the crops difficult to get hold of soil.Local winds bring sudden change in temperature and humidity.Light wind helps pollination and seed dispersionLight wind helps to lower relative humidity and increase transpiration
33ReliefTemperate regions: lowland is suitable for crops growing for too short growing season in Mts.Tropical regions: the best farming areas are in upland for too hot and wet in lowland.Aspect:Affect temperature and water availabilitySlope:Too steep cannot cultivatedTree crops and tea can be grown on hillsidePaddy, wheat and sugar should be grown in lowland.Relief directly and indirectly affects other factors (soil and climate)
34Soil Different soils support different crops Rice: clay with much waterTea: acid soil and well-drainedSugar: very fertile soilSweet potato and yam: poor soil is OK.Application of fertilizer (natural manure or artificial) would change the soil water, texture, chemical composition and fertility
35Cultural components affecting agriculture Socio-economic environment may determines the possible farming system and the input intensity.Cultural componentsTransportCapitalMarketLabourTechnologySocial Factors
36Transport Transport networks link up farm and market Farm products market (cities)Cities (machines, artificial fertilizers) farmTransport cost includes delivery cost, freight rate, insurance and customs chargesRural poverty of developing countries is partly the result of insufficient linkage with the citiesMeans of transportLand, sea and airTransport has greatly been improved inSpeed and facilities (packing and refrigeration)The importance of transport is increasing with technology improvement
37CapitalBuy seeds, animals, farming machines, fertilizers and other farming materials…..Govt. loan (low interest rate) and grants may help the productivity of farmsLack of saving of farmer in developing countries is one of the important drawback for improvementCapital in developed countries not only allows farm improvement, but also saves them in times of bad harvest.
38Market Places for selling farm products Some advanced nations have carried out co-operative groups for processing and marketing of their products. (eg. Sunkist)Promoting sales,standardize price and quality of productsLinkup with supermarket, large scale freezing and canning factories
39Labour Different types of crops need different amount of farm workers Wheat: less workersTea: more workersSome general farm work can be replaced by machinesHarvesting period needs more labourFarm workers are tight in thinly populated rural area.
40Technology Modify the physical environment by Irrigation on dry fieldsTo drain swampsTo build terraces on steep slopesTo produce artificial rainNew strains of plants (Bio-technology, Genetic engineering)Eg. Miracle rice, drought-resistant plants, cloningAdding artificial fertilizersSpraying insecticidesMechanizationTechnology is increasing the importance in farming.
41Social factorSocial attitudes of people, traditions, level of education…are all determinants on farm production.Some are encouraging but other are negativeLand tenure (land ownership)Tenant farmingA cash tenant farmer:Long lease will encourage further investment and cultivate more carefullyShort lease will make him maximize profits by over-grazing and over-cropping, which lead to soil erosionA share cropper: safeguard against fluctuating yieldFreehold ownership:Advantage: incentives to manage their farms efficientlyDisadvantage: fragmentation of fields through inheritance lawState ownership (communist countries)Advantage: consolation of fields, mass team workDisadvantage: lack of private ownership discourage incentive
42Impacts on agriculture production pattern Impacts of Urbanization and Industrialization on Agricultural LandscapesImpacts on agriculture production patternAgricultural land use patternsEconomic influences on agricultural locationVon Thunen ModelSinclair Theory
43Impacts on agriculture production pattern Impacts of Urban ExpansionLoss of FarmlandThe anticipation of urban expansionIntensity of agricultural activitiesFarm Size and land ownershipCase Study: Hong Kong
44Impacts of Urban Expansion Urbanization and industrialization necessitate the expansion of urban areas and an inevitable infringement into the surrounding farmlands
45Loss of FarmlandEspecially good farmland in areas close to the urbanized areasUrbanizationIncrease urban populationMore houses, shops, factories, schools and other public works….UK’s Green Belt Policy for checking the rapid expansion of urban sprawl.
46Anticipation of urban expansion Farmers within a few km of the city edge may have a opportunity to sell their farmland at very high pricesThis will influence the intensity of farmlandFarmers are unlikely to start long-term improvementsFewer investment and become more extensiveInsufficient labour force for intensive croppingPart-time farmers rarely farm intensively and part-time farming is very common.Plant orchards or other perennial cropsLand is left idle for the building road, which cut off a field from the main part of the farm.
47Intensity of agricultural activities More intensive agricultural activities may be found in the large urban periphery.ReasonsLarge market for fresh and quality products of suburban orchards and nurseriesUrban area provides fertilizers, machines and casual labourers, which help to cut down costs of agricultural inputs.Urban dwellers contribute to investment in agriculture.Specialized and intensive farming systems can be found in peri-urban regionsProducts: high value products (fresh vegetables, fruits, flowers, nursery plants, milk, fish, pigs and poultry……
48Farm size and land ownership In general, near the peri-urbanFarm size become smallerLand is expensiveFew farmers can increase their holdingPart of the farm may be soldFarming may be intensive (horticulture, pigs, poultry or dairying)Farming may be extensive even abandonRelatively high proportion of tenantsMust be use case studies for specific examinations
49Case Study – Hong Kong (1970s) Urban population growth of Hong Kong start from 1950 and the increase of urban areas and satellite towns.Tsuen Wan, Kwun Tong, Shatin, Tuen Mun, Tai Po,……..The impact of urbanization on farming is very strong
51Changes on Farming (1970s)Decrease of farmland and Increase of abandoned land along the hillsideUrbanization and industrialization (Construction of roads, new towns,….)Swamps and fields were converted into residential areasYoung farmers were attracted to urban area for better jobs and high wages (rural-urban migration)Labour shortage in the remote areas especiallyIncrease of market gardening around the city core (Yuen Long) and along roads. Pigs and poultry farming replace paddy and tree crops. On the other hand, fish ponds were also increased – Intensive farmingHigher standard of living of urban peopleLarge demand for high quality of fresh crops.Vegetables and flowers are more yields per year and more profitable.More investment, mechanization and specializationImprove transport system for export products to urban
52Change on Farming (1980s to 90s) Increase abandoned land around city core and along highways.Intensive farmlands became to extensive farmlands, left fallow or even abandonedMany farmlands near the city core and along highways were converted to other land use (cars repair, warehouses, residential….) or ready for sale.Farmland became more intensive further away from the city core and the highways.
53Change on Farming (21 Century --) Basically, there are no real agriculture in Hong Kong.Not only farmlands near the city core and along highways were erased, but also farmlands in remote area were abandoned, waiting for sale or even converted to residential area.Food stuffs import from outsides regions.Prefect internal and external transportation networks.Government Policies make against agricultural development (Code of Practice - Livestock Waste Management , Avian flu Event , SAR Event ….)There are few fish ponds, horticultural gardens and very few farms (organic farmlands, leisure farmlands) exist in H.K. now.