Presentation on theme: "Geography and the Settlement of Greece. 25.1 Introduction Geography of Greece 1. The mainland is a peninsula but there are many islands throughout the."— Presentation transcript:
Geography and the Settlement of Greece
25.1 Introduction Geography of Greece 1. The mainland is a peninsula but there are many islands throughout the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. 2. Steep, rocky mountains 3. Turquoise-blue seas Geography influenced the way they lived: 4.Cities and villages were isolated 5. Trading was necessary due to little farmland.
25.2: Isolation and Travel Difficulties The high mountains made travel difficultThe high mountains made travel difficult 1. People walked, or rode in carts pulled by oxen 2. Sharp rocks shattered wooden wheels 3. People travelled in groups moving slowly and at risk of being attacked. Traveling by boat was easier…Traveling by boat was easier… 4. Dangerous, travelers could be attacked by pirates. 5. The greatest danger was the sea! (A wise captain always made a sacrifice to the sea god Poseidon before sailing.)
25.3 Farming in Ancient Greece Farming wasn’t easy in GreeceFarming wasn’t easy in Greece 1. Land was rocky 2. Water in the mountains was scarce. 3. Rains only during winter months. 4. No major rivers flow through Greece. 5. Farms had to build steps into the mountains to create flat land to grow crops. The crops grown:The crops grown: 6. Wheat 7. Braley 8. Grapes 9. Olives (Olive Oil is their most famous crop)
25.3 Farming, continued Greek farmers also raised animalsGreek farmers also raised animals 1. Sheep and goats a. Sheep supplied wool for clothing b. Goats provided milk and cheese 2. Oxen, mules, and donkeys for p lowing and transportation The shortage of good farmland sometimes led to wars between Greek settlements, some settlements were also forced to look beyond the mainland for new sources of food and other goods.
25.4 Starting Colonies 1. Colonies were settlements in distant places. 2. People were called colonists. These people were sent to distant places to grow food and sent it back to the mainland. Many preparations had to be made: 3. Ask gods for the trip to be successful 4. Meet with a holy person, called an oracle, who could communicate with the gods. 5. Gather food and supplies They also took a flame from their town’s sacred fire to start a fire in their new home.
25.4 Starting Colonies It wasn’t easy..,It wasn’t easy.., 1. Long sea voyage 2. Had to find good farmland with natural harbors (water access) 3. Avoid places that had local people who did not want to share their land. Establishment was over 300 years.Establishment was over 300 years. 4. Ionia in Asia Minor (Today modern Turkey) 5. Spain, France, Italy and Africa.
25.5 Trading for Needed Goods Greek settlements traded for goods they needed: 1. Grain 2. Timber 3. Metal Ships were owned by Merchants 4. A person who makes money selling goods.
25.5 Trading for Needed Goods Navigating ships was difficultNavigating ships was difficult 1. No compasses 2. Only stars 3. No light houses. This made it difficult to see the hazards in the water. Despite the danger…Despite the danger… 4. Trade flourished along the Mediterranean coast.
A 2,500 year old Greek ship has been raised from the sea bed off the Sicilian Coast in Italy. The 21 metre ship is the biggest and most preserved wreck of its kind ever to have been found and is an amazing find. (more…)(more…)
Merchant Ship The Greek ship has been found to be a mercantile sailer which was probably used to sail short distances along the coastline. Several artefacts have been recovered, including oil lamps, pottery and straw baskets. Archaeologists believe that the ship encountered a storm, in which the ship tilted, and the ballast broke the hull sending it to the sea bed. The discovery of the wreck has excited many archaeologists and it is thought to be the missing link in naval engineering. The wooden planks of the hull of the ship have been found to be sewn together with ropes, with pitch and resin used as a form of sealant to keep out water. This technique is slightly different from those used later. The Greek wreck will be transported to Portsmouth in England where it will be restored before returning to Gala where it is hoped to be put in a museum.
25.6 Chapter Summary In this chapter, you learned how the Greeks settled in isolated communities because of their country’s mountainous geography. Most Greeks survived by farming, but good farmland was scarce. So the Greeks took to the seas, creating new colonies and trading with other peoples. In the next chapter, you will see how the isolated communities of ancient Greece developed their own customs, including different forms of government.