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The Pharmacy Technician 4E Chapter 4 Medical Terminology.

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1 The Pharmacy Technician 4E Chapter 4 Medical Terminology

2 Topic Outline Terminology Terminology Organ system terminology Organ system terminology Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System Endocrine System Endocrine System Gastrointestinal System Gastrointestinal System Integumentary System Integumentary System Lymph and Blood Systems Lymph and Blood Systems Muscular System Muscular System Nervous System Nervous System Skeletal System Skeletal System Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System Respiratory System Respiratory System Urinary System Urinary System Senses Senses Drug Classifications Drug Classifications Medical Abbreviations Medical Abbreviations

3 Basic Elements of a Medical Word Medical science terminology is made up of a small number of ROOT words (mostly Greek and Latin words). Medical science terminology is made up of a small number of ROOT words (mostly Greek and Latin words). 1. Word Root 2. Combining Form 3. Suffix 4. Prefix These four parts of a word are known as ELEMENTS. E.g. Peri – o - dont – ic (Periodontic: around the teeth) E.g. Peri – o - dont – ic (Periodontic: around the teeth) Root Root Prefix + Suffix C.V. C.V.

4 Word Root Main part or foundation of a word. Main part or foundation of a word. Identify what part of the body a term is related to. Identify what part of the body a term is related to. All words have at least one word root. All words have at least one word root. A word root may be used alone or be combined with other elements to form a complete word. A word root may be used alone or be combined with other elements to form a complete word. E.g. Gastr (word root) + itis (suffix) = GASTRITIS (complete word). E.g. Gastr (word root) + itis (suffix) = GASTRITIS (complete word).

5 Terminology Most root words originate from either Greek or Latin words. Most root words originate from either Greek or Latin words. Words developed from the Greek language are often used to refer to diagnosis and surgery. Words developed from the Greek language are often used to refer to diagnosis and surgery. Words from the Latin language generally refer to the anatomy of the body. Words from the Latin language generally refer to the anatomy of the body.

6 Root - Part of Body Card - heart Card - heart Cyst - bladder Cyst - bladder Gastr - stomach Gastr - stomach Hemat - blood Hemat - blood Hepat - liver Hepat - liver My - muscle My - muscle Pector – chest Pector – chest Neur - nerve Neur - nerve Pneum - lung Pneum - lung Ocul - eye Ocul - eye Derma - skin Derma - skin Ven - vein Ven - vein Mast - breast Mast - breast Oste - bone Oste - bone Nephr - kidney Nephr - kidney Ot - ear Ot - ear

7 Combining Forms Correct pronunciation of medical words is very important. Correct pronunciation of medical words is very important. In order to make the pronunciation of root words easier, sometimes it is necessary to insert a vowel after the root. In order to make the pronunciation of root words easier, sometimes it is necessary to insert a vowel after the root. The combination of a root word and a vowel is known as a COMBINING FORM. The combination of a root word and a vowel is known as a COMBINING FORM. “O” is the most common combining vowels “O” is the most common combining vowels IE: gastr / o = pronounced as GASTRO IE: gastr / o = pronounced as GASTRO Word root Combining vowel

8 Combining Words When a word has more than one root, a combining vowel is used to link the root to each other. When a word has more than one root, a combining vowel is used to link the root to each other. E.g. osteoarthritis oste/ o / arthr/ itis Word root Combining vowel Word root suffix Slashes separate elements

9 Suffixes A suffix is added to the END of a word root or combining form to modify its meaning. A suffix is added to the END of a word root or combining form to modify its meaning. Adding a suffix to the end of a word root, creates a noun or adjective with a different meaning. Adding a suffix to the end of a word root, creates a noun or adjective with a different meaning.

10 Meanings of certain suffixes -al = pertaining to = dent/al (pertaining to teeth) -er = one who = speak/er (one who speaks) -able = capable of being = playable (capable of being played)

11 Prefixes A syllable or syllables placed BEFORE a word or word root to alter its meaning or create a new word. Some prefixes: Hyper- (excessive) Pre- (before) Post- (after) Homo- (same) Hypo- (under)

12 Hypoinsulinemia Hypo / insulin / emia Hypo / insulin / emia Prefix Word root suffix LOW INSULIN BLOOD Notice that there is no combining vowel in this word because the prefix ends with a vowel and the suffix begins with a vowel.

13 Cardiovascular System The Cardiovascular System distributes blood throughout the body using blood vessels called arteries, capillaries, and veins. The Cardiovascular System distributes blood throughout the body using blood vessels called arteries, capillaries, and veins. Blood transports nutrients to the body’s cells and carries waste products away from them. Blood transports nutrients to the body’s cells and carries waste products away from them. Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from the lungs to the body and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from the lungs to the body and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. Leukocytes (white blood cells) fight bacterial infections by producing antibodies. Leukocytes (white blood cells) fight bacterial infections by producing antibodies.

14 Cardiovascular System Cont. The heart pumps blood through the cardiovascular system. The heart pumps blood through the cardiovascular system. Blood pressures are reported as systole/diastole, i.e., 120/80. Blood pressures are reported as systole/diastole, i.e., 120/80. A sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure. A sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure. Blood pressure is reported (in mm Hg) and includes two number sequence. Blood pressure is reported (in mm Hg) and includes two number sequence. Systolic phase is the increased pressure when blood is forced out of the heart. Systolic phase is the increased pressure when blood is forced out of the heart. The diastolic phase, or relaxation phase, is the second number reported in blood pressure monitoring. The diastolic phase, or relaxation phase, is the second number reported in blood pressure monitoring.

15 Cardiovascular System angi = vessel angi = vessel aort = aorta aort = aorta card = heart card = heart oxy = oxygen oxy = oxygen pector = chest pector = chest phleb = vein phleb = vein stenosis = narrowing stenosis = narrowing thromb = clot thromb = clot vas(cu) = blood vessel vas(cu) = blood vessel ven = vein ven = vein

16 Cardiovascular System Cardiomyopathy = disease of the heart muscle Cardiomyopathy = disease of the heart muscle Myocardial = concerning heart muscle Myocardial = concerning heart muscle Tachycardia = abnormal rapid heart action Tachycardia = abnormal rapid heart action Phlebitis = inflammation of a vein Phlebitis = inflammation of a vein Thrombosis = blood clot Thrombosis = blood clot Hypertension = high blood pressure Hypertension = high blood pressure

17 The Endocrine System Consists of the glands that secrete hormones, chemicals that assist in regulating body functions. Consists of the glands that secrete hormones, chemicals that assist in regulating body functions. Includes the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, and the gonads (ovaries and testes). Includes the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland, and the gonads (ovaries and testes). Pituitary gland = produces multiple hormones and is located at the base of the brain. It controls the body’s growth and the activity of the other glands. Pituitary gland = produces multiple hormones and is located at the base of the brain. It controls the body’s growth and the activity of the other glands. Thyroid gland = located just below the larynx and releases hormones important for regulating body metabolism. Thyroid gland = located just below the larynx and releases hormones important for regulating body metabolism.

18 The Endocrine System Cont. Parathyroid glands = located on the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands = located on the thyroid gland. Thymus gland = located beneath the sternum. Thymus gland = located beneath the sternum. Pancreas = known for its production of insulin and glucagon. Pancreas = known for its production of insulin and glucagon. Adrenal glands = located on top of the kidneys and produce such hormones as aldosterone, cortisol (hydrocortisone), androgens, and estrogens. Adrenal glands = located on top of the kidneys and produce such hormones as aldosterone, cortisol (hydrocortisone), androgens, and estrogens. Medulla region = adrenal glands produce the catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Medulla region = adrenal glands produce the catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine).

19 Endocrine System lipid = fat lipid = fat Nephr= kidney Nephr= kidney Thym= thymus Thym= thymus adrena= adrenal adrena= adrenal gluc= sugar gluc= sugar panceat = pancreas panceat = pancreas somat = body somat = body

20 Endocrine System Hyperlipidemia = high fat/lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidemia = high fat/lipids in the blood. Hypothyroidism = a deficiency of thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism = a deficiency of thyroid hormone. Somatic = pertaining to the body. Somatic = pertaining to the body.

21 The Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Located in the abdomen and contains the organs that are involved in the digestion of foods and the absorption of nutrients. Located in the abdomen and contains the organs that are involved in the digestion of foods and the absorption of nutrients. Organs include the stomach, small and large intestine, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. Organs include the stomach, small and large intestine, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. Alimentary tract refers to the system that goes from the mouth to the anus. It contains organs such as lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, and anus, in addition to the GI tract. Alimentary tract refers to the system that goes from the mouth to the anus. It contains organs such as lips, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, and anus, in addition to the GI tract. Several organs contribute to the digestion of foods by secreting enzymes into the small intestine when food is present. Several organs contribute to the digestion of foods by secreting enzymes into the small intestine when food is present. Ducts carry bile from the liver (hepatic duct) and the gallbladder (cystic duct) to the duodenum. Ducts carry bile from the liver (hepatic duct) and the gallbladder (cystic duct) to the duodenum.

22 Gastrointestinal Tract Consists of organs that are involved in digestion of foods and the absorption of nutrients Gastritis = inflammation of the stomach. Gastritis = inflammation of the stomach. Gastroenteritis = inflammation of the stomach and Hepatitis = inflammation of the liver. Gastroenteritis = inflammation of the stomach and Hepatitis = inflammation of the liver. Appendicitis = inflammation of the appendix Appendicitis = inflammation of the appendix Colitis = inflamed or irritable the intestinal tract colon Colitis = inflamed or irritable the intestinal tract colon Hematemesis = vomiting of blood Hematemesis = vomiting of blood Diarrhea= liquid bowel movement Diarrhea= liquid bowel movement

23 Alimentary Tract chol = bile chol = bile col= colon col= colon Duoden=duodenum Duoden=duodenum Enter = intestine Enter = intestine esophag= esophagus esophag= esophagus gastr= stomach gastr= stomach hepat= liver hepat= liver lapar= abdomen lapar= abdomen Pancreat = pancreas Pancreat = pancreas

24 The Integument System Refers to the covering of the body and is the body’s first line of defense, acting as a barrier against disease and physical hazards. Refers to the covering of the body and is the body’s first line of defense, acting as a barrier against disease and physical hazards. Helps control body temperature by releasing heat through sweat or by constricting blood vessels to act as insulation. Helps control body temperature by releasing heat through sweat or by constricting blood vessels to act as insulation. It includes the skin, hair, and nails. Hair is made of keratinized cells. Finger nails and toenails are also composed of keratin. It includes the skin, hair, and nails. Hair is made of keratinized cells. Finger nails and toenails are also composed of keratin. The mammary glands, or breasts, are also considered part of the integumentary system. The mammary glands, or breasts, are also considered part of the integumentary system. The skin is composed of the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis has no blood or nerves and is constantly discarding dead cells. The dermis, which is made of living cells, contains capillaries, nerves, and lymphatics. The dermis also contains the sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair. The skin is composed of the epidermis and dermis. The epidermis has no blood or nerves and is constantly discarding dead cells. The dermis, which is made of living cells, contains capillaries, nerves, and lymphatics. The dermis also contains the sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair. The subcutaneous layer of tissue is beneath the dermis but is closely interconnected to it. It separates the skin from the other organs (for example, the muscular system, as in the illustration). The subcutaneous layer of tissue is beneath the dermis but is closely interconnected to it. It separates the skin from the other organs (for example, the muscular system, as in the illustration).

25 The Integument System The Integument System is the covering of the body and the first line of defense against diseases and physical hazards. necr= death necr= death Derma= skin Derma= skin cutane = skin cutane = skin mast = breast mast = breast onych= nail onych= nail Myco= fungal Myco= fungal Lact= milk Lact= milk

26 The Integument System Dermatitis = skin inflammation Dermatitis = skin inflammation Erythrodemra = abnormal redness of skin Erythrodemra = abnormal redness of skin Lactation = secretion of milk Lactation = secretion of milk Mastectomy = surgical removal of breast Mastectomy = surgical removal of breast Onychomycosis = fungal infection of nails Onychomycosis = fungal infection of nails Pachyderma = abnormal thickness of skin Pachyderma = abnormal thickness of skin Subcutaneous = beneath the skin Subcutaneous = beneath the skin Transdermal = through the skin Transdermal = through the skin

27 The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System is the center of the body’s immune system and is responsible for collecting plasma water that leaves the blood vessels, filtering it for impurities through its lymph nodes. The Lymphatic System is the center of the body’s immune system and is responsible for collecting plasma water that leaves the blood vessels, filtering it for impurities through its lymph nodes. The Spleen is the largest organ in the system and is responsible for removing old red blood cells from the circulation. The Spleen is the largest organ in the system and is responsible for removing old red blood cells from the circulation. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that attacks bacteria and disease cells by releasing antibodies. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that attacks bacteria and disease cells by releasing antibodies. The thymus, tonsils, spleen, and adenoids are lymphoid organs outside the network of the lymphatic system. The thymus, tonsils, spleen, and adenoids are lymphoid organs outside the network of the lymphatic system.

28 The Lymphatic System aden = gland aden = gland cyt= cell cyt= cell hemo, hemat= blood hemo, hemat= blood lymph= lymph lymph= lymph splen= spleen splen= spleen Philia= attraction of Philia= attraction of

29 The Lymphatic System Adenopathy = lymph node disease Adenopathy = lymph node disease Hematoma = a collection of clotted blood Hematoma = a collection of clotted blood Hemophilia = a disease in which the blood does not clot normally Hemophilia = a disease in which the blood does not clot normally Lymphoma = lymphatic system tumor Lymphoma = lymphatic system tumor

30 The Muscular System Word muscles comes from mus=mouse; cle=little and resembles a mouse moving under a cover. Word muscles comes from mus=mouse; cle=little and resembles a mouse moving under a cover. The body contains more than 600 muscles which give shape and movement to it. The body contains more than 600 muscles which give shape and movement to it. The skeletal muscles are striated, i.e. made up of fibers and attached to the bones by tendons. The skeletal muscles are striated, i.e. made up of fibers and attached to the bones by tendons. Voluntary action - the action of most muscles and is controlled consciously. Voluntary action - the action of most muscles and is controlled consciously. Involuntary muscles operate automatically and are found in the heart, the stomach, or in the walls of blood vessels. Involuntary muscles operate automatically and are found in the heart, the stomach, or in the walls of blood vessels. Some muscles produce an outward or flexor movement and these are called agonist muscles. Some muscles produce an outward or flexor movement and these are called agonist muscles. Antagonist muscles are the ones that contract or bring the limb back to the original position. Antagonist muscles are the ones that contract or bring the limb back to the original position.

31 The Muscular System my= muscle my= muscle fibr= fiber fibr= fiber tendin= tendon tendin= tendon

32 The Muscular System Fibromyalgia = chronic pain in the muscles Fibromyalgia = chronic pain in the muscles Myoplasty = plastic surgery of muscle tissue Myoplasty = plastic surgery of muscle tissue Tendonitis = inflammation of a tendon Tendonitis = inflammation of a tendon

33 The Nervous System The Nervous System is the most complex of the body organ systems because there are over 100 billion neurons in the brain alone. The Nervous System is the most complex of the body organ systems because there are over 100 billion neurons in the brain alone. The neuron (nerve cell), the basic functional unit in this system, transmits information from the brain to the entire body. The neuron (nerve cell), the basic functional unit in this system, transmits information from the brain to the entire body. The primary parts of this system are the brain and the spinal cord, called the central nervous system (CNS). The primary parts of this system are the brain and the spinal cord, called the central nervous system (CNS). There are subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system called the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. There are subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system called the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the automatic functions of the body, e.g., breathing, digestion, etc. The autonomic nervous system controls the automatic functions of the body, e.g., breathing, digestion, etc. The somatic nervous system controls the voluntary actions of the body, e.g., muscle movements. The somatic nervous system controls the voluntary actions of the body, e.g., muscle movements.

34 The Nervous System Cereb= cerebrum Cereb= cerebrum Encephal= brain Encephal= brain Mening= menignes Mening= menignes Myel= spinal cord Myel= spinal cord Neur= nerve Neur= nerve

35 The Nervous System Encephalitis = inflammation of the brain Encephalitis = inflammation of the brain Neuralgia= severe pain in a nerve Neuralgia= severe pain in a nerve Neuroma= tumor or nerve cells Neuroma= tumor or nerve cells

36 The Skeletal System Protects soft organs and provides structure and support for the body’s organs. Protects soft organs and provides structure and support for the body’s organs. Contains 206 bones called axial (skull and spinal column). Contains 206 bones called axial (skull and spinal column). Ligaments and Cartilage are connective tissue that hold together the skeletal systems with joints. Ligaments and Cartilage are connective tissue that hold together the skeletal systems with joints. Joints range from rigid to those allowing full motion (e.g., the ball and socket joints of the hips and shoulders). Joints range from rigid to those allowing full motion (e.g., the ball and socket joints of the hips and shoulders).

37 Skeletal System arthr= joint arthr= joint Calcane= heel bone Calcane= heel bone carp = wrist carp = wrist crani= cranium crani= cranium Dactyl= finger or toe Dactyl= finger or toe femor= thigh bone femor= thigh bone myel= bone marrow myel= bone marrow

38 The Skeletal System Oste= bone Oste= bone ped, pod = foot ped, pod = foot pelv= pelvis pelv= pelvis Spondy = backbone Spondy = backbone stern= sternum, breastbone stern= sternum, breastbone Vertebr= backbone, vertebrae Vertebr= backbone, vertebrae

39 The Skeletal System Arthralgia = joint pain Arthralgia = joint pain Arthritis = inflammation of a joint Arthritis = inflammation of a joint Carpal = pertaining to carpus in the wrist Carpal = pertaining to carpus in the wrist Osteoarthritis = chronic disease of bones Osteoarthritis = chronic disease of bones

40 The Reproductive System The Reproductive System produces hormones (e.g. estrogen, progesterone), controls menstruation, and provides for childbearing. The Reproductive System produces hormones (e.g. estrogen, progesterone), controls menstruation, and provides for childbearing. Contains the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the external genitalia. Contains the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and the external genitalia. The mammary glands (located in breast tissue) produce and secrete milk at childbirth. The mammary glands (located in breast tissue) produce and secrete milk at childbirth. The vagina is a muscular tube that leads from an external opening to the cervix and uterus. The vagina is a muscular tube that leads from an external opening to the cervix and uterus. The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ. The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ. The fallopian tubes transport eggs from the ovary to the uterus. The fallopian tubes transport eggs from the ovary to the uterus. The ovaries are located on each side of the uterus. The ovaries are located on each side of the uterus.

41 The Female Reproductive System Gynec = woman Gynec = woman Hyster = uterus Hyster = uterus lact= milk lact= milk mast= breast mast= breast metr= uterus metr= uterus ovari= ovary ovari= ovary uter= uterine uter= uterine

42 The Female Reproductive System Gynecology = the study of the female reproductive organs Gynecology = the study of the female reproductive organs Amenorrhea = absence of menstruation Amenorrhea = absence of menstruation Dysmenorrhea = menstrual pain Dysmenorrhea = menstrual pain Endometriosis = abnormal growth of uteral tissue Endometriosis = abnormal growth of uteral tissue Viginities = inflammation of the vagina Viginities = inflammation of the vagina

43 The Male Reproductive System The Male Reproductive System produces sperm and secretes the hormone testosterone. The Male Reproductive System produces sperm and secretes the hormone testosterone. The testes (also called testicles) are the primary male sex organs. The testes (also called testicles) are the primary male sex organs. They are oval-shaped organs enclosed in the scrotum. They are oval-shaped organs enclosed in the scrotum. The seminal glands, located at the base of the bladder, produce part of the seminal fluid. The seminal glands, located at the base of the bladder, produce part of the seminal fluid. The Vas Deferens are ducts that allow the passage of the sperm from the testes. The Vas Deferens are ducts that allow the passage of the sperm from the testes. The prostate gland is located at the upper end of the urethra. The prostate gland is located at the upper end of the urethra. The penis (glans penis) is the external organ for urination and sexual intercourse. The penis (glans penis) is the external organ for urination and sexual intercourse. The urethra, by which urine and semen leave the body, is inside the penis. The urethra, by which urine and semen leave the body, is inside the penis.

44 The Male Reproductive System Andr = male Andr = male test= testicle test= testicle Prostat= prostate gland Prostat= prostate gland Sperm = sperm Sperm = sperm vas= duct, vessel vas= duct, vessel Vasicul=seminal vesicles Vasicul=seminal vesicles

45 The Male Reproductive System Prostatitis = inflammation of prostate Prostatitis = inflammation of prostate Aspermia = inability to produce semen Aspermia = inability to produce semen

46 The Respiratory System The Respiratory System brings oxygen into the body through inhalation and expels carbon dioxide gas through exhalation. It produces sound for speaking and helps cool the body. The Respiratory System brings oxygen into the body through inhalation and expels carbon dioxide gas through exhalation. It produces sound for speaking and helps cool the body. Respiratory muscles (especially the diaphragm) expand the lungs automatically, causing air to be inhaled into the upper respiratory tract. Respiratory muscles (especially the diaphragm) expand the lungs automatically, causing air to be inhaled into the upper respiratory tract. The pleural cavity surrounds the lungs and provides lubrication for respiration. The pleural cavity surrounds the lungs and provides lubrication for respiration. The pharynx directs food into the esophagus and air into the trachea. The pharynx directs food into the esophagus and air into the trachea. The larynx contains the vocal cords. The larynx contains the vocal cords. The trachea, or windpipe, connects to the two bronchi (bronchial tubes) that enter the lungs. The trachea, or windpipe, connects to the two bronchi (bronchial tubes) that enter the lungs. As air enters through the nose, it is warmed, moistened, and filtered. Inside the lungs, the bronchial tubes branch out and lead to the alveolar sacs that are the site of gas exchange within the lungs. As air enters through the nose, it is warmed, moistened, and filtered. Inside the lungs, the bronchial tubes branch out and lead to the alveolar sacs that are the site of gas exchange within the lungs. Alveoli are specialized tissues that are responsible for the exchange of gases between the blood and inhaled air. Alveoli are specialized tissues that are responsible for the exchange of gases between the blood and inhaled air.

47 The Respiratory System aer, aero= air, gas aer, aero= air, gas pneum, pulmon = lung pneum, pulmon = lung pector= chest pector= chest Bronch= bronchus Bronch= bronchus ox= oxygen ox= oxygen capnia= carbon dioxide capnia= carbon dioxide

48 The Respiratory System Apnea = temporary failure to breath Apnea = temporary failure to breath Bronchitis= inflammation of the bronchial membrane Bronchitis= inflammation of the bronchial membrane Cynosis = blue discoloration of the skin Cynosis = blue discoloration of the skin Hypercapnia = excessive carbon dioxide in the blood Hypercapnia = excessive carbon dioxide in the blood Hypoxia = low blood oxygen level Hypoxia = low blood oxygen level Pneumonia = inflammation of the lungs Pneumonia = inflammation of the lungs Sinusitits = inflammation of the sinuses Sinusitits = inflammation of the sinuses

49 The Urinary Tract The Urinary Tract is responsible for removing wastes from the blood and includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethras. The Urinary Tract is responsible for removing wastes from the blood and includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethras. The Kidney is the primary organ of the urinary tract. The Kidney is the primary organ of the urinary tract. The Nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. There are several million nephrons in the kidneys. The Nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. There are several million nephrons in the kidneys. Urine is produced as plasma water and is filtered through the glomerulus, the filtrate is then collected in the tubule. Urine is produced as plasma water and is filtered through the glomerulus, the filtrate is then collected in the tubule. Waste materials from the blood may also be filtered into the tubule or may be secreted into the tubule at sites other than the glomerulus. Waste materials from the blood may also be filtered into the tubule or may be secreted into the tubule at sites other than the glomerulus. Urine is the filtrate that moves along the tubule. Urine is the filtrate that moves along the tubule. Urine leaves the kidney through the ureters and collects in the bladder. It is excreted from the bladder through the urethra. Urine leaves the kidney through the ureters and collects in the bladder. It is excreted from the bladder through the urethra.

50 The Urinary Tract cyst = bladder cyst = bladder vesic= bladder vesic= bladder ren= kidney ren= kidney nephr= kidney nephr= kidney uria= urine uria= urine

51 The Urinary Tract Anuria = inability to produce urine Anuria = inability to produce urine Cystitis = inflammation of the bladder Cystitis = inflammation of the bladder Nephritis = inflammation of the kidney Nephritis = inflammation of the kidney Polyuria = excessive urination Polyuria = excessive urination Uremia = toxic blood condition caused by kidney failure Uremia = toxic blood condition caused by kidney failure

52 The Ears The Ears perform hearing, as well as the maintenance of body equilibrium. The Ears perform hearing, as well as the maintenance of body equilibrium. The External ear functions to capture sound waves and channels them inside the ear. The External ear functions to capture sound waves and channels them inside the ear. The tympanic membrane (eardrum) is a funnel-shaped structure with an opening to outside. It contains glands that make earwax (cerumen) that protects the external ear. The tympanic membrane (eardrum) is a funnel-shaped structure with an opening to outside. It contains glands that make earwax (cerumen) that protects the external ear. Malleus, incus, and stapes are three bony structures that transmit sound from a vibrating tympanic membrane to the cochlea and located in the middle ear. Malleus, incus, and stapes are three bony structures that transmit sound from a vibrating tympanic membrane to the cochlea and located in the middle ear. The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the nose and throat, serving to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the nose and throat, serving to equalize the air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane. The labyrinth is the principal structure in the inner ear is which consists of the vestibule, the cochlea, and the semicircular canals. The labyrinth is the principal structure in the inner ear is which consists of the vestibule, the cochlea, and the semicircular canals. The cochlea contains the organ of hearing. When sound waves are transmitted to the cochlea, it converts them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. The semicircular canals and the vestibule are primarily responsible for body equilibrium. The cochlea contains the organ of hearing. When sound waves are transmitted to the cochlea, it converts them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. The semicircular canals and the vestibule are primarily responsible for body equilibrium.

53 Senses: Hearing Belphar= eyelid cor= pupil lacrim= tear corne= cornea rein= retina bi= two opia= vision

54 The Eyes The Eyes are the organs that provide sight. The Eyes are the organs that provide sight. The eyelids protect the eye and assist in its lubrication. The eyelids protect the eye and assist in its lubrication. The conjunctiva is the blood-rich membrane between the eye and the eyelid. The conjunctiva is the blood-rich membrane between the eye and the eyelid. There are several glands that secrete fluids to protect and lubricate the eye; the lacrimal glands above each eye secrete tears and the meibomian glands produce sebum. There are several glands that secrete fluids to protect and lubricate the eye; the lacrimal glands above each eye secrete tears and the meibomian glands produce sebum. Canalicula (tear ducts) drains excess fluid into the eye. Canalicula (tear ducts) drains excess fluid into the eye. The eye has three layers. The outer layer is composed of the sclera and the cornea. The eye has three layers. The outer layer is composed of the sclera and the cornea. The sclera is the white part of the eye. The cornea is transparent so the iris (the color of the eye) and the pupil (the opening of the eye) are visible. The sclera is the white part of the eye. The cornea is transparent so the iris (the color of the eye) and the pupil (the opening of the eye) are visible. The middle layer is called the choroid and contains blood vessels that nourish the entire eye. The middle layer is called the choroid and contains blood vessels that nourish the entire eye. In the third layer, the lens focuses light rays on the retina. In the third layer, the lens focuses light rays on the retina. The vitreous humor (one of two fluids in the eye) fills the space between the retina and the lens. The vitreous humor (one of two fluids in the eye) fills the space between the retina and the lens. Rods and cones within the retina they are responsible for visual reception. Rods and cones within the retina they are responsible for visual reception. The optic nerve within the retina transmits the nerve impulses to the brain for interpretation. The optic nerve within the retina transmits the nerve impulses to the brain for interpretation.

55 Senses: Sight Blepharitis = inflammation of the eyelid Blepharitis = inflammation of the eyelid Conjunctivitis = inflammation of the conjunctiva Conjunctivitis = inflammation of the conjunctiva Retinitis = inflammation of the retina Retinitis = inflammation of the retina

56 Drug Classifications “anti” means “Against” 1. Antacid =relieves gastritis, ulcer pain, heartburn, indigestion 2. Antianginals=relieves heart pain 3. Anticoagulants=dissolves or prevents blood clots 4. Anticonvulsants =prevents seizures 5. Antidepressants=prevents depression 6. Antidiarrheals =stops diarrhea (loose stool) 7. Antiemetics =prevents nausea and vomiting

57 Drug Classifications “anti” means “Against” Antihistamine = blocks the effects of histamine Antihyperlipidemia = lowers high cholesterol Antihypertensive = reduces high blood pressure Anti-inflammatory = reduces inflammation Antipruritics= prevents or relieves itching Antipruritics= prevents or relieves itching Antispasmodics = relieves intestinal cramping Antitussive= relieves coughing

58 Other Classes Decongestant Decongestant = de + Conges + tant reduce nasal congestion Analgesic Analgesic = an + alges + ic without pain, pain killer Hypoglycemic Hypoglycemic = hypo + glyc + emic reduces blood sugar level hypolipidemic hypolipidemic = hypo + lipid + emic reduces cholesterol or lipid levels Contraceptive Contraceptive = contra + cep + tive prevents pregnancy Spermicide Spermicide = sperm + I + cide kills sperm

59 Pharmacy Abbreviations Most common abbreviations  Route  Form  Time  Measurement

60 Abbreviations ad= right ear as= left ear au= each ear IM= intramuscular IV= intravenous od= right eye os= left eye ou= each eye po= by mouth sl= sublingually

61 Abbreviations elix= elixir supp= suppository ung= ointment ac= before meals pc= after meals hs= at bedtime qd= every day prn= as needed qid= four times a day tid= three times a day bid= two times a day

62 Abbreviations gtt gttgmgrlmcgmgmeqmlqsdisp = drop = gram = grain = liter = microgram = milligram = milliequivalent = milliliter = a sufficient quantity = dispense

63 Terms to Remember 1. Through the Skin 2. Blood Tumor 3. Ven 4. Ot 5. Gastr 6. Hardening of Artery 7. Muscle Repair 8. Otalgia 9. Liver Tumor 10. Card 11. Cyst 12. Derma 13. Loss Of Appetite 14. Hemat 15. Hepat 16. Mast 17. Increase In White Blood Cells 18. Nephr 19. Neur 20. Ocul 21. Oste 22. Brain Inflammation 23. Pector 24. Pneum 25. My

64 Terms to Remember 26. Alimentary tract 27. Alveoli 28. Combining vowel 29. Conjunctiva 30. Cornea 31. Diastolic phase 32. Endocrine system 33. Eustachian tube 34. Flexor movement 35. Integumentary system 36. Lacrimal gland 37. Lymphocytes 38. Nephron 39. Neuron 40. Osseous tissue 41. Prefix 42. Retina 43. Root word 44. Suffix 45. Systolic phase 46. Tympanic membrane


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