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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY CHAPTER 4. CHAPTER OUTLINE Terminology Prefixes Suffixes Organ System Terminology – Cardiovascular – Endocrine – Gastrointestinal.

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Presentation on theme: "MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY CHAPTER 4. CHAPTER OUTLINE Terminology Prefixes Suffixes Organ System Terminology – Cardiovascular – Endocrine – Gastrointestinal."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY CHAPTER 4

2 CHAPTER OUTLINE Terminology Prefixes Suffixes Organ System Terminology – Cardiovascular – Endocrine – Gastrointestinal – Integumentary – Lymph and Blood – Muscular Organ System Terminology (cont.) – Nervous – Skeletal – Female Reproductive – Male Reproductive – Respiratory – Urinary – Senses (Hearing, Sight) Drug Classifications Medical Abbreviations Review

3 ELEMENTS OF A MEDICAL SCIENCE WORD ‘BASIC’ Medical science terminology is made up of combinations of – root words – prefixes – suffixes – combining vowels e.g. periodontic = peri (prefix, meaning “around”) + o (combining vowel) + dont (root word, meaning “teeth”) + ic (suffix, meaning “pertaining to”) Root words originate from either Greek or Latin. – Greek – diagnosis and surgery – Latin – anatomy

4 ROOT WORDS - EXAMPLES card heart cyst bladder gastr stomach hemat blood hepat liver mymuscle pector chest neur nerve pneumon lung ocul eye derma skin ven vein mast breast oste bone nephr kidney ot ear

5 PREFIXES Added before a word root or suffix to alter its meaning Added before a word root or suffix to alter its meaning – hyper = excessive hyper/tension = high blood pressure hyper/tension = high blood pressure – an = without an/orexia = without appetite an/orexia = without appetite – post = after post/partum = after child birth post/partum = after child birth – dys = painful, difficult dys/phas/ia = difficulty in speaking dys/phas/ia = difficulty in speaking

6 SUFFIXES Added to the end of a word root or combining vowel to modify its meaning Added to the end of a word root or combining vowel to modify its meaning = pertaining to – -al = pertaining to dent/al = pertaining to teeth dent/al = pertaining to teeth = inflammation – -itis = inflammation gastr/itis = inflammation of the stomach gastr/itis = inflammation of the stomach = tumor – -oma = tumor melan/oma = black tumor melan/oma = black tumor

7 COMBINING VOWELS Sometimes a CV is added to make the pronunciation of medical words easier. Sometimes a CV is added to make the pronunciation of medical words easier. Sometimes a CV is added to connect different word parts together. Sometimes a CV is added to connect different word parts together. “O” is the most common combining vowel. “O” is the most common combining vowel.

8 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The cardiovascular system distributes blood throughout the body using blood vessels called arteries, capillaries, and veins. – Blood transports nutrients to the body’s cells and carries waste products away from them. Blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. – Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from the lungs to the body and carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs. – Leukocytes (white blood cells) fight bacterial infections by producing antibodies.

9 CARDIOVACULAR SYSTEM The heart pumps blood through the cardiovascular system. – Blood pressure is reported in a two number sequence (systole/diastole, e.g., 120/80). – Systolic phase is the increased pressure when blood is forced out of the heart. – Diastolic phase is the decreased pressure when the heart is not forcing blood out of the heart. – A sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure.. Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

10 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ROOT aneurwidening angi vessel aort aorta arterartery atherplaque card heart cytecell embolembolus oxy oxygen pector chest phleb vein stenosis narrowing thromb clot vas(cu) blood vessel ven vein

11 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Consists of the glands that secrete hormones, chemicals that assist in regulating body functions – Glands primarily in endocrine system pituitary adrenal thyroid parathyroid gonads (ovaries and testes) – Glands primarily belonging to other organ systems liver stomach pancreas kidney Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

12 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ROOT pancreat pancreas plas development somat body tetan tetanus thym thymus thyroid thyroid adengland adrenaadrenal crineto secrete glycsugar lipidfat myxmucus nephrkidney

13 GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) TRACT Contains the organs that are involved in the digestion of foods and the absorption of nutrients Not the same as the alimentary tract – alimentary tract goes from the mouth to the anus Ducts – hepatic duct – from liver (hepatic duct) to duodenum – cystic duct – from gallbladder (cystic duct) to duodenum

14 GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) TRACT ROOT chol bile colcolon duodenduodenum enter intestine esophagesophagus gastrstomach hematblood hepatliver hernihernia laparabdomen orexiaappetite pancreat pancreas pepsiadigestion phagswallow

15 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Covering of the body – skin (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous) – hair – nails – mammary glands First line of defense against disease and physical hazards Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

16 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM ROOT adipfat cutaneskin derm(at)skin histtissue kerathard mast breast melanblack necrdeath (of cells, etc.) onychnail

17 LYMPH AND BLOOD SYSTEM The lymphatic system is responsible for collecting, filtering, and returning plasma water leaving the blood vessels. – center of the body’s immune system – thymus, tonsils, spleen, and adenoids are outside the network Spleen - responsible for removing old red blood cells Lymphocytes - attack bacteria and disease cells Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

18 LYMPH AND BLOOD SYSTEMS ROOT lymphlymph phlebvein splenspleen sepsisto putrefy thrombclot thymthymus aden gland bacterbacteria cytcell hematblood hemoblood leukwhite

19 MUSCULAR SYSTEM Muscles give shape and movement to the body. – more than 600 muscles – made up of fibers and attached to bones by tendons Voluntary muscles - action controlled consciously Involuntary muscles - operate automatically Agonist muscles - produce an flexor movement Antagonist muscles - contract or bring limb back to original position

20 MUSCULAR SYSTEM ROOT bursbursa chondrcartilage mymuscle fibrfiber rhabdorod tendintendon Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

21 NERVOUS SYSTEM The neuron is the basic functional unit. The brain has over 100 billion neurons. Central nervous system (CNS) – brain & spinal cord Peripheral nervous system – branches from spinal cord – autonomic nervous system controls the automatic functions of the body – somatic nervous system controls the voluntary actions of the body. Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

22 NERVOUS SYSTEM ROOT myelspinal cord neurnerve phasspeech psychomind somatbody  algespain  cerebrcerebrum  encephalbrain  esthessensation  meningmeninges  mentmind

23 SKELETAL SYSTEM Protects soft organs and provides structure and support for body organs Contains 206 bones – axial (skull and spinal column vertebrae) – appendicular (arms, legs, connecting bones) Ligaments and Cartilage - connective tissue that holds together the skeletal systems at joints Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

24 SKELETAL SYSTEM ROOT arthrjoint carp wrist cranicranium dactylfinger or toe femorthigh bone fibulsmall lower leg bone humerupper arm bone lordcurve ostebone patellknee cap ostebone ped, podfoot pelvpelvis phalangbones of fingers and toes rachivertebrae scolicrooked, bent spondylbackbone sternsternum, breastbone tibilarge lower leg bone

25 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Produces hormones, controls menstruation, and provides for childbearing The mammary glands (located in breast tissue) produce and secrete milk at childbirth. fallopian tube ovary uterus vagina Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re- transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

26 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ROOT cerviccervix condyleknob, knuckle eclampsshining forth gynec woman hyster uterus lactmilk mammbreast mastbreast menmenstruation metruterus ovariovary salpingfallopian tube tocbirth uteruterine vaginvagina

27 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Produces sperm and secretes testosterone Primary sex organs – testes (testicles) Other organs – seminal glands – vas deferens – prostate gland – penis – urethra Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

28 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ROOT andr male balanglans penis crypthidden orchtestis orchidtestis prostatprostate gland seminsemen spermsperm vasvessel, duct varicvaricose veins testtestis, testicle

29 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Functions – oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange – production of sound – body cooling Structures – diaphragm – pleural cavity – pharynx – larynx – trachea and bronchial tubes – alveolar sacs (alveoli) Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

30 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ROOT WORDS aer air aerogas bronchbronchus capncarbon dioxide cyanblue larynglarynx nasnose oxoxygen pectorchest pneumonlung, air pulmonlung respirbreath rhinnose sinussinus

31 URINARY TRACT Removes waste materials from blood Primary organ is kidney Functional unit is nephron Waste materials from blood are ________ the tubule. – filtered into – secreted into – reabsorbed from Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

32 URINARY TRACT ROOT WORDS urkidney uriaurine, urination uresisurination ureterureter urethrurethra vesicbladder albuminprotein cystbladder glycosglucose ketoketones lithstone nephrkidney renkidney

33 SENSES: HEARING Hearing – external ear – tympanic membrane (eardrum) – middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes) – eustachian tube – labyrinth (vestibule, cochlea, semicircular canals) – cochlea Body equilibrium – semicircular canals, vestibule Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

34 SENSES: HEARING ROOT WORDS acoushearing acusishearing condition audihearing ceruminwax-like labyrinthinner ear myringeardrum otear salpingeustachian tube tympaneardrum

35 SENSES: SIGHT The eyes provide sight. Complex structure involving layers of structure Ability to protect and lubricate itself lacrimal glands meibomian glands Images copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing Company. May not be copied, re-used, reproduced, or re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher.

36 SENSES: SIGHT ROOT WORDS amblydim, dull blephareyelid conjunctivconjunctiva comecornea glaucgray irid, iriris lacrimtear duct oculeye ophthalmeye opiavision opteye, vision retinretina stigmatpoint(ed)

37 DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS Drug class – group of drugs that have several therapeutic properties in common Several classes oppose physiological processes. antianginals anticoagulants anticonvulsants antidepressants antidiarrheals antiemetics antihistamine antihistamine antihyperlipidemia antihypertensive antiinfective antiinfective anti-inflammatory antipruritics antispasmodics antitussive

38 OTHER CLASSES Analgesic an + alges + ic = without pain, pain killer Hypoglycemic hypo + glyc + emic = reduces blood sugar level Hypolipidemic hypo + lipid + emic = reduces cholesterol or lipid levels Spermicide sperm + i + cide = kills sperm

39 PHARMACY ABBREVIATIONS About 10,000 abbreviations About 10,000 abbreviations – can be specific to one institution – can be specific to one area of the country


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