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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION. ANATOMY MORPHOLOGY.

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Presentation on theme: "MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION. ANATOMY MORPHOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION

2 ANATOMY MORPHOLOGY

3 PHYSIOLOGY FUNCTION

4 MOLECULAR HIERARCHY SUBATOMIC –Electrons –Neutrons –Protons –ATOM –MOLECULE

5 HEIRARCHY CONT. MACROMOLECULES –Proteins –Carbohydrates –Lipids –Nucleic acids

6 HIERARCHY CONT. CELL (CYTOLOGY; CELL BIOLOGY) –NUCLEUS –CELL MEMBRANE (plasma membrane, phospholipid bilayer) –CYTOPLASM (cytosol) –MITOCHONDRIA (cellular respiration; conversion of glucose to carbon dioxide and water and ATP)

7 HIERARCHY CONT. CELL –LYSOSOME (digestive enzymes) –PEROXISOMES (detoxification, especially alcohol) –ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM SMOOTH ER (synthesis of lipids, detox, drug tolerance) ROUGH ER (protein assembly) GOLGI APPARATUS (post-translational modification)

8 Hierarchy cont CELL –NUCLEUS (in eukaryotes, protects genetic info) –FLAGELLA AND CILIA (cell movement; 9=2 array)

9 HIERARCHY CONT TISSUE (HISTOLOGY) –EPITHELIAL (epithelium and endothelium, glands) –CONNECTIVE (dense connective like bone, adipose, loose connective like blood vessels, and blood and lymph) –MUSCLE (cardiac, smooth, skeletal) –NERVOUS (nerves, spinal cord, brain)

10 HIERARCHY CONT ORGANS (see Table 2.2) ORGAN SYSTEMS –RESPIRATORY –NERVOUS –DIFESTIVE –CIRCULATORY ALL LEADS TO HUMA ORGANISM

11 ANATOMY BODY PLANES –VERTICAL (rt angle to horizon) MIDSAGITTAL – vertical, rt and left halves SAGITTAL – unequal left and right portions CORONAL- divides into anterior and posterior

12 ANATOMY BODY DIRECTIONS –ANTERIOR/VENTRAL –POSTERIOR/DORSAL –SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR –CEPHALIC AND CAUDAL –PROXIMAL AND DISTAL –MEDIAL AND LATERAL

13 BODY CAVITIES DORSAL (cranial and spinal) VENTRAL –Thoracic- ends at diaphragm –Abdominal –Pelvic- mainly reproduction and excretion –abdominopelvic

14 Abdominal divisions Right upper Left upper Right lower Left lower

15 ABDOMEN AND THORAX REGIONS RT AND LEFT HYPOCHONDRIAC EPIGASTRIC RT AND LEFT LUMBAR UMBILICAL RT AND LEFT ILIAC HYPOGASTRIC

16 PERITONEUM

17 Membrane –Parietal – outer –Visceral – inner –Mesentery –Retroperitoneal –Ascites – fluid in peritoneum

18 CYTOLOGY DNA GENES MUTATION (somatic vs gametic) Genetic disorders –Huntington’s disease –Cystic fibrosis –Hemophilia –Down syndrome

19 GENETIC DISORDER CONT –Sickle cell anemia –Tay sachs –Phenylketouria –Genetic vs congenital Fetal alcohol syndrome Cerebral palsy

20 WORD PARTS OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY

21 PUTTING THEM TOGETHER “o” IS COMMON COMBINING VOWEL –IF ENDS IN CONSONANT –IF COMBING TWO OR MORE ROOT WORDS “o” NOT NEEDED IF SUFFIX BEGINS IN A VOWEL

22 SIMPLE COMBING FORMS PREFIXES –OFTEN DENOTE TIME, LOCATION OR STATUS Pre-, peri-, post- A-: without Ab-:away from Eu: good Dys-:bad

23 Prefixes cont. –Hyper-:above –Hypo-:below –Inter-:between –Intra-:within –Sub: below –Super- or supra-: beyond –Oligo-:few

24 PREFIXES CONT. BODY SYSTEMS –OSTEO- BONES –ARTHRO- JOINTS –CHONDRO- CARTILAGE –MYO – MUSCLES –CARDIO-HEART –PHLEB- VEINS –ARTERIO- ARTERIES

25 BODY SYSTEMS PREFIXES –HEMA- OR HEMAT- BLOOD –SPLENO- SPLEEN –NAS-NOSE –PNUEMO-LUNGS –ORO-MOUTH –GASTRO-STOMACH –ENTERO-SMALL INTESTINE –COLO-LARGE INTESTINE

26 BODY SYSTEM PREFIXES –HEPATO-LIVER –NEPHR- OR REN- KIDNEYS –CYST-, VESSICO- URINARY BLADDER –NEUR- NERVOUS SYSTEM –ENCEPHAL-BRAIN –MYELO-SPINAL CORD –OPTHAL, OR OCUL- EYES –OT-, ACOUST- EARS

27 BODY SYSTEM PREFIXES –CUTAN-, DERMAT– SKIN –SEB- SEBACEOUS GLANDS –HIDR-SWEAT GLANDS –ORCH-TESTES –OOPHOR-, OVARI- OVARIES –HYSTER-, MET-, UTER- UTERUS

28 SUFFIXES Often indicate procedure, disorder, or disease –Ectomy : to remove –Tonsillectomy – ac: pertaining to –-itis: inflammation of –- osis: abnormal condition

29 SUFFIXES CONT –- dynia, - algia: pain or suffering (cephalgia, gastrodynia –- malcia: abnormal softening (arteiomalacia) –- megaly: enlargement (hepatomegaly) –- necrosis: death (caessation necrosis – Tb) –- sclerosis: abnormal hardening (arteriosclerosis) –- stenosis: abnormal narrowing (pyloric stenosis)

30 SUFFIXES CONT PROCEDURES –- centesis: fluid removal (amniocentesis) –- ectomy: removal –- graphy, - gram: picture (arteriography, pyelogram) –- plasty: to repair (rhinoplasty) –- scopy: visual exam (colonoscopy, endoscopy)

31 SUFFIXES THE IMMPORTANT RR’S: –- rrhaphy: to suture (splenorrhaphy) –- rrhage: bursting forth (hemorrhage) –- rrhea: abnormal flow (diarrhea, amenorrhea) –- rrhexis: rupure (splenorrhexis)

32 BASIC MEDICAL TERMS EPIDEMIOLOGY SYMPTOM = SUBJECTIVE SIGN, CLINICAL MANIFESTATION = OBJECTIVE DIAGNOSIS –Differential –Prognosis

33 BASIC MEDICAL TERMS DISEASE –CHRONIC VS ACUTE –SYNDROME = COMPILATION OF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS –REMISSION – ABSENCE OF SYMPTOMS WITHOUT A CURE –EPIDEMIC VIS ENDEMIC, PANDEMIC –TRANSMISSION –INCUBATION PERIOD

34 BASIC MEDICAL TERMS INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMUNICABLE IDIOPATHIC NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IATROGENCI DISORDER

35 CONFUSING WORD PARTS ARTERIO- AND ATHERO- ILEUM AND ILIUM INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION MUCOUS AND MUCUS MYC-, MYEL-, AND MY- -OSTOMY AND –OTOMY PALPATION AND PALPITATION PROSTATE AND PROSTRATE

36 CONFUSING WORD PARTS CONT SUPPINATION AND SUPPURATION PYELO-, PYO-, AND PYRO- TRIAGE AND TRAUMA VIRAL AND VIRILE

37 COLOR WORD PARTS ERTYTH- RED (erythrocyte, erthroblastoma fetalis) MELAN- WHITE (malignant melanoma, melanosis) CYAN- BLUE (cyanosis, cyanotic) LEUK-WHITE (leukocyte, leukemia) POLI- GRAY (poliomyelitis) 0

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