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HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION"— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY HUMAN BODY ORIENTATION

2 ANATOMY MORPHOLOGY

3 PHYSIOLOGY FUNCTION

4 MOLECULAR HIERARCHY SUBATOMIC Electrons Neutrons Protons ATOM MOLECULE

5 HEIRARCHY CONT. MACROMOLECULES Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids
Nucleic acids

6 HIERARCHY CONT. CELL (CYTOLOGY; CELL BIOLOGY) NUCLEUS
CELL MEMBRANE (plasma membrane, phospholipid bilayer) CYTOPLASM (cytosol) MITOCHONDRIA (cellular respiration; conversion of glucose to carbon dioxide and water and ATP)

7 HIERARCHY CONT. CELL LYSOSOME (digestive enzymes)
PEROXISOMES (detoxification, especially alcohol) ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM SMOOTH ER (synthesis of lipids, detox, drug tolerance) ROUGH ER (protein assembly) GOLGI APPARATUS (post-translational modification)

8 Hierarchy cont CELL NUCLEUS (in eukaryotes, protects genetic info)
FLAGELLA AND CILIA (cell movement; 9=2 array)

9 HIERARCHY CONT TISSUE (HISTOLOGY)
EPITHELIAL (epithelium and endothelium, glands) CONNECTIVE (dense connective like bone, adipose, loose connective like blood vessels, and blood and lymph) MUSCLE (cardiac, smooth, skeletal) NERVOUS (nerves, spinal cord, brain)

10 HIERARCHY CONT ORGANS (see Table 2.2) ORGAN SYSTEMS RESPIRATORY
NERVOUS DIFESTIVE CIRCULATORY ALL LEADS TO HUMA ORGANISM

11 ANATOMY BODY PLANES VERTICAL (rt angle to horizon)
MIDSAGITTAL – vertical, rt and left halves SAGITTAL – unequal left and right portions CORONAL- divides into anterior and posterior

12 ANATOMY BODY DIRECTIONS ANTERIOR/VENTRAL POSTERIOR/DORSAL
SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR CEPHALIC AND CAUDAL PROXIMAL AND DISTAL MEDIAL AND LATERAL

13 BODY CAVITIES DORSAL (cranial and spinal) VENTRAL
Thoracic- ends at diaphragm Abdominal Pelvic- mainly reproduction and excretion abdominopelvic

14 Abdominal divisions Right upper Left upper Right lower Left lower

15 ABDOMEN AND THORAX REGIONS
RT AND LEFT HYPOCHONDRIAC EPIGASTRIC RT AND LEFT LUMBAR UMBILICAL RT AND LEFT ILIAC HYPOGASTRIC

16 PERITONEUM

17 PERITONEUM Membrane Parietal – outer Visceral – inner Mesentery
Retroperitoneal Ascites – fluid in peritoneum

18 CYTOLOGY DNA GENES MUTATION (somatic vs gametic) Genetic disorders
Huntington’s disease Cystic fibrosis Hemophilia Down syndrome

19 GENETIC DISORDER CONT Sickle cell anemia Tay sachs Phenylketouria
Genetic vs congenital Fetal alcohol syndrome Cerebral palsy

20 WORD PARTS OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY

21 PUTTING THEM TOGETHER “o” IS COMMON COMBINING VOWEL
IF ENDS IN CONSONANT IF COMBING TWO OR MORE ROOT WORDS “o” NOT NEEDED IF SUFFIX BEGINS IN A VOWEL

22 SIMPLE COMBING FORMS PREFIXES OFTEN DENOTE TIME, LOCATION OR STATUS
Pre-, peri-, post- A-: without Ab-:away from Eu: good Dys-:bad

23 Prefixes cont. Hyper-:above Hypo-:below Inter-:between Intra-:within
Sub: below Super- or supra-: beyond Oligo-:few

24 PREFIXES CONT. BODY SYSTEMS OSTEO- BONES ARTHRO- JOINTS
CHONDRO- CARTILAGE MYO – MUSCLES CARDIO-HEART PHLEB- VEINS ARTERIO- ARTERIES

25 BODY SYSTEMS PREFIXES HEMA- OR HEMAT- BLOOD SPLENO- SPLEEN NAS-NOSE
PNUEMO-LUNGS ORO-MOUTH GASTRO-STOMACH ENTERO-SMALL INTESTINE COLO-LARGE INTESTINE

26 BODY SYSTEM PREFIXES HEPATO-LIVER NEPHR- OR REN- KIDNEYS
CYST-, VESSICO- URINARY BLADDER NEUR- NERVOUS SYSTEM ENCEPHAL-BRAIN MYELO-SPINAL CORD OPTHAL, OR OCUL- EYES OT-, ACOUST- EARS

27 BODY SYSTEM PREFIXES CUTAN-, DERMAT– SKIN SEB- SEBACEOUS GLANDS
HIDR-SWEAT GLANDS ORCH-TESTES OOPHOR-, OVARI- OVARIES HYSTER-, MET-, UTER- UTERUS SUBCUTANEOUS, DERMATOLOGIST SBORRHEA HYPERHIDROSIS ORCHITIS OOOPHORECTOMY HYSTERECTOMY, METROMENORRHEA

28 SUFFIXES Often indicate procedure, disorder, or disease
Ectomy : to remove Tonsillectomy ac: pertaining to -itis: inflammation of - osis: abnormal condition

29 SUFFIXES CONT - dynia, - algia: pain or suffering (cephalgia, gastrodynia - malcia: abnormal softening (arteiomalacia) - megaly: enlargement (hepatomegaly) - necrosis: death (caessation necrosis – Tb) - sclerosis: abnormal hardening (arteriosclerosis) - stenosis: abnormal narrowing (pyloric stenosis)

30 SUFFIXES CONT PROCEDURES - centesis: fluid removal (amniocentesis)
- ectomy: removal - graphy, - gram: picture (arteriography, pyelogram) - plasty: to repair (rhinoplasty) - scopy: visual exam (colonoscopy, endoscopy)

31 SUFFIXES THE IMMPORTANT RR’S: - rrhaphy: to suture (splenorrhaphy)
- rrhage: bursting forth (hemorrhage) - rrhea: abnormal flow (diarrhea, amenorrhea) - rrhexis: rupure (splenorrhexis)

32 BASIC MEDICAL TERMS EPIDEMIOLOGY SYMPTOM = SUBJECTIVE
SIGN, CLINICAL MANIFESTATION = OBJECTIVE DIAGNOSIS Differential Prognosis

33 BASIC MEDICAL TERMS DISEASE CHRONIC VS ACUTE
SYNDROME = COMPILATION OF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS REMISSION – ABSENCE OF SYMPTOMS WITHOUT A CURE EPIDEMIC VIS ENDEMIC, PANDEMIC TRANSMISSION INCUBATION PERIOD

34 BASIC MEDICAL TERMS INFECTIOUS DISEASE COMMUNICABLE IDIOPATHIC
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IATROGENCI DISORDER

35 CONFUSING WORD PARTS ARTERIO- AND ATHERO- ILEUM AND ILIUM
INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION MUCOUS AND MUCUS MYC-, MYEL-, AND MY- -OSTOMY AND –OTOMY PALPATION AND PALPITATION PROSTATE AND PROSTRATE

36 CONFUSING WORD PARTS CONT
SUPPINATION AND SUPPURATION PYELO-, PYO-, AND PYRO- TRIAGE AND TRAUMA VIRAL AND VIRILE

37 COLOR WORD PARTS ERTYTH- RED (erythrocyte, erthroblastoma fetalis)
MELAN- WHITE (malignant melanoma, melanosis) CYAN- BLUE (cyanosis, cyanotic) LEUK-WHITE (leukocyte, leukemia) POLI- GRAY (poliomyelitis)

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