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female reproductive system

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Presentation on theme: "female reproductive system"— Presentation transcript:

1 female reproductive system

2 Inside the womb

3 Combining Forms Andr(o): male Amni(o): amniotic sac
Balan(o): glans penis Cervic(o): neck, cervix Crypt(o): hidden Cry(o): cold Epididym(o): epididymis Fet(o): fetus Gynec(o): female, woman Genit(o): organs of reproduction Lapar(o): abdominal wall Men(o): month Nat(o): birth O(o): egg, ovum Obstetr(o): midwife Olig(o): few Par(o): bearing offspring Prostat(o):prostate gland Perine(o): perineum

4 Combining Forms Pen(o): penis Salping(o): fallopian tube
Scrot(o): scrotum Semin(o): semen Sympt(o): symptom Therm(o): heat Vas(o): vessel, ductus deferens Vulv(o): vulva Varic(o): dilated vein Vesicul(o):seminal vesicle

5 Combining Forms Spermat(o), sperm(o): sperm Oophor(o), ovari(o): ovary
Galact(o), lact(o): milk Orchi(o), orch(o), orchid(o), test(o): testis (plural: testes) Mamm(o), mast(o): breast Colp(o), vagin(o): vagina Hyster(o), metri(o), metr(o), uter(o): uterus (womb)

6 Prefixes and suffixes Ante-, pre- = before, in front Brachy-: short
Contra- = against Dys-: difficult, painful Ecto- = outside Endo-: inside Epi-: above, upon Multi-: many, much Nulli-: none Quadri-: four Post-: after Primi- : first Pseudo-: false -arche: beginning -blast: embryonic or early form cyesis: pregnancy -cidal: killing -cide: killing

7 Suffixes -genesis: origin, beginning -gravida: pregnant female
-plasia: formation, development -para: woman who has given birth -salpinx: fallopian tube -spadias: slit, fissure -tocia: childbirth, labor -therapy: treatment -version: turning

8 Female Reproductive System
Function: Provide nourishment for a fetus throughout pregnancy to transport ova and discharge it from the body if fertilization does not occur

9 Structures Ovaries: glands located in the pelvic cavity where ripened eggs are released Fallopian tubes: tubes that extend from the ovaries to the uterus Fimbriae: fingerlike projections that create wavelike currents to move the ovum into the fallopian tubes

10 Structures Uterus: contains and nourishes the embryo until the fetus is born Cervix: the lower portion of the uterus that leads into the vagina Vagina: a muscular tube that extends into to the body Organ of sexual intercourse and receptor of semen Discharges menstrual flow and delivers the fetus Bartholin glands: secret mucus to lubricate the vagina during intercourse

11 Structures External genitalia: (vulva) sex or reproductive organs visible on the outside of the body Clitoris: composed of erectile tissue and nerve endings Perineum: the area between the vagina and the anus Episiotomy: a surgical incision of the perineum during childbirth

12 Structures Mammary Glands (breasts): Contain adipose (fat) tissue and milk-producing glands Secrete milk for the nourishment of the newborn (lactation) Develop during puberty as a result of estrogen and progesterone



15 Menstruation Menarche: the fist menstrual cycle around age 12
Menstrual cycle: (28 days) A series of phases during which the uterine lining changes in response to hormonal changes Menstrual phase: Days 1-5 the endometrium sloughs off due to hormone stimulation The detached tissue and blood are discharged as menstrual flow

16 The Menstrual Cycle Ovulatory Phase: days 6-14
when menstruation stops and the endometrium thickens Estrogen rises and ova being to mature On day 14 one mature ovum is released (ovulation) The ovum leaves the ovary and enters the fallopian tube

17 The Menstrual Cycle Postovulatory phase: days 15-28
Estrogen and progesterone stimulate thickening of the endometrium in preparation for implantation of an embryo If fertilization does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease and the uterine lining begins to shed again Menstruation



20 Pregnancy Pregnancy: the uterus grows in size to house the fetus
The vaginal canal elongates The uterus rises higher into the pelvis Mucous membranes thicken to protect the fetus The cervix and vagina become more elastic fertilization 3:10-4:26

21 Labor and Childbirth Labor: the process of expelling the fetus from the uterus Stage 1: the stage of dilation: uterine contractions begin and the cervix dilates to 10 cm Stage 2: stage of expulsion: the baby is expelled from the uterus Stage 3: placental stage: uterine contractions discharge the placenta from the uterus

22 Menopause Menopause: the ending of ovarian activity and diminished hormone production that occurs at about age 50 Amenorrhea: the absence of menses Climacteric: the period in which symptoms of menopause occur Symptoms: hot flashes, vaginal drying, vaginal atrophy Hormone replacement therapy: estrogen is given to combat symptoms of menopause

23 Pathology Causes: infection: virus, fungus, bacteria, injury, hormonal dysfunction Symptoms: pain, itching, discharge, lesions Prevention: yearly pelvic examination Gynecology: deals with disorders of the female reproductive organs and breasts Obstetrics: deals with the health of a woman and her fetus during pregnancy and birth

24 Pathology Puerperium: the period of adjustment after childbirth that lasts 6-8 weeks Reproductive organs return to their normal positions

25 Pathology Menstrual disorders
Causes: hormonal dysfunction or pathological conditions of the uterus Dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation Causes: uterine contractions, pathological growths, anemia, fatigue, diabetes, tuberculosis Treatment: estrogen

26 Pathology Metrorrhagia: irregular bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause May be a sign of serious menstrual disorders such as tumors Menorrhagia or hypermenorrhea: profuse or prolonged bleeding during regular menstruation Caused by endocrine gland dysfunction, inflammatory diseases, tumors or emotional disturbances

27 Pathology Premenstrual syndrome (PMS): occurs before the onset of menstruation Symptoms: headache, fatigue, mood changes, anxiety, depression, uncontrolled crying and water retention Caused by hormonal changes Ends when menstruation appears or shortly after Prevention: increase exercise, reduce salt, caffeine and alcohol use

28 Pathology Endometriosis: the presence of functional endometrial tissue in areas outside of the uterus Symptoms: pain, infertility and other problems

29 Pathology Pelvic and vaginal infections
Pelvic inflammatory disease: inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries Causes: pathogen (bacteria) enters during intercourse or childbirth Examples: Gonorrhea and chlamydia Can result in infertility if not treated properly Septicemia: bacteria in the blood because of severe infections

30 Pathology Vaginitis: inflammation of the vagina caused by bacteria, viruses or yeast Symptoms: painful intercourse, itching, foul-smelling discharge, urethritis Candidiasis: also called moniliasis, caused by the a yeast that is normally present in the vagina Causes: using antibiotics, pregnancy, steroids, diabetes Treatment: antifungal (myocostatics) drugs

31 Pathology Trichomoniasis: caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (parasite) Most common STD

32 Oncology Breast cancer: carcinoma of the breast
The most common cancer in women in the U.S. Associated with ovarian hormonal function Contributors: diet high in fat, family history, hormone replacement therapy, late or early menarche, nulliparous women Prevention: Mammograms and self breast examinations can catch it early


34 Oncology Cervical cancer: usually affects women between the ages of 40 and 50 Causes: sexual activity, first coitus at a young age, large number of sexual partners, infection with STD’s, intercourse with men whose previous partners had cervical cancer Treatment: radiation therapy, and surgery (cauterizing and cryotherapy)


36 Pathology Atresia: congenital closure of a normal body opening such as the vagina Choriocarcinoma: malignant tumor of the uterus at the site of an ectopic pregnancy Dyspareunia: painful intercourse Endocervicitis: inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervix caused by chronic infections

37 Eptopic Pregnancy

38 Pathology Retroversion: turning of an organ from its original position (uterus) Uterine fibroids: benign tumors composed of fibrous tissue that develop in the uterus Also called leioyomas, myomas or fibroids


40 Pathology Sterility: inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female Abortion: termination of pregnancy before the embryo or feus is capable of surviving on its own Abruptio placentae: premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall Causes hemorrhaging that could lead to death

41 Problems with Pregnancy

42 Pathology Breech presentation: the fetal buttocks or feet present first rather than the head Down syndrome: (trisomy 21) a genetic condition where a person has 47 chromosomes instead of 46 Extra copy of chromosome 21 Causes mental and physical delays in child development


44 Pathology Eclampsia: serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy: the fertilized egg implants itself outside of the uterus Placenta Previa: the placenta is attached close to or covers the cervix and results in hemorrhaging during labor

45 Eptopic Pregnancy


47 Problems with Pregnancy

48 Medical Procedures Intrauterine device: (IUD) a small T-shaped device is inserted to prevent pregnancy Copper IUD: releases copper particles into the uterus Hormonal IUD: releases progestin to prevent pregnancy

49 Medical Procedures Cerclage: suturing of the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy Cesarean section: C-section: incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus Uses: cephalopelvic disproportion, STD presence, fetal distress and breech presentation

50 Medical Procedures Colpocleisis: surgical closure of the vaginal canal
Conization: excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue of the cervix for histological examination Cordocentesis: sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein used to identify hemolytic disease and genetic abnormalities

51 Medical Procedures Cryosurgery: the process of freezing tissue to destroy cells Dilation and curettage: (D&C) widening of the cervical canal and scraping of the uterine endometrial lining with a curette Uses: to control abnormal bleeding, treat incomplete abortions, obtain tissue samples


53 Medical Procedures Hysterectomy: excision of the uterus
Uses: uterine cancer, dysfunctional bleeding, fibroid tumors, prolapse of uterus, severe endometriosis Subtotal: the ovaries, cervix and fallopian tubes remain Total: cervix is removed but ovaries and fallopian tubes remain Total plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: total complete hysterectomy removing the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries

54 Medical Procedures Laparoscopy: visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope Though an incision on the umbilicus Lumpectomy: excision o fa small breast tumor

55 Medical Procedures Mammoplasty: surgical reconstruction of a breast to change its shape, size or position Augmentation: insertion of a breast implant beneath the pectoralis major muscle Reduction: breast reduction to reduce the size of a large breast

56 Medical Procedures Mastectomy: removal of an entire breast
Total: removal of the breast, nipple and areola Modified radical: removal of the breast and lymph nodes under the arm Radical: removal of the breast, underarm lymph nodes and chest wall muscles

57 Medical Procedures Mastectomy: removal of an entire breast
Total: removal of the breast, nipple and areola Modified radical: removal of the breast and lymph nodes under the arm Radical: removal of the breast, underarm lymph nodes and chest wall muscles

58 Medical Procedures Reconstructive breast surgery: creation of a breast shaped mound to replace a breast that has been removed due to cancer Tubal ligation: ties (ligates) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy Amniocentesis: puncture of the amniotic sac to remove amniotic fluid to test for fetal abnormalities

59 Problems with Pregnancy

60 Tubal Ligation

61 Medical Procedures Colposcopy: visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope Insufflation: delivery of pressurized air into a cavity or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction or apply medication Pelvimetry: measurement of pelvic dimensions to determine if the fetus’ head will pass through Chorionic villus sampling: sampling of the placenta for prenatal diagnosis of genetic defects

62 Medical Procedures Endometrial biopsy: removal of uterine endometrium sample for study Papanicolaou (Pap) test: cytological study used to detect abnormal cells in the cervix and vagina Hysterosalpingography: fluoroscopy of the uterus and uterine tubes Mammography: radiographic examination of the breast to screen for breast cancer

63 Medications Antifungals: used to treat vaginal yeast infections
Estrogens: used to treat symptoms of menopause through hormone replacement therapy Oral contraceptives: hormones used to prevent pregnancy and treat menstrual disorders

64 Medications Oxytocics: used to induce labor at term by increasing uterine contractions Controls bleeding after birthing Prostoglandins: used to terminate pregnancy Causes uterine contractions Spermicides: used to destroy sperm by creating an acidic environment in the uterus

65 Contraceptives

66 Abbreviations AB, Ab, ab: antibody or abortion
CA: cancer, chronological age or cardiac arrest D&C: dilation and curettage DUB: dysfunctional uterine bleeding FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone GYN: gynecology HRT: hormone replacement therapy IUD: intrauterine device LH: luteinizing hormone CS, C-section: cesarean section FECG, FEKG: fetal electrocardiogram

67 Abbreviations LMP: last menstrual period
LSO: left salpingo-oophorectomy OCPs: oral contraceptive pills Pap: Papanicolaou test PID: pelvic inflammatory disease STD: sexually transmitted disease US: ultrasound, ultrasonography IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer OB: obstetrics Para 1,2,3 and so on: unipara, bipara, tripara (number of births)

68 Ultrasound


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