Presentation on theme: "Female Reproductive System"— Presentation transcript:
1Female Reproductive System Chapter 8Female Reproductive System
2Female Reproductive System Sexual reproduction is the union of the nuclei of the female sex cell (ovum) and the male sex cell (sperm) that results in the creation of a new individualSex cell is called a gameteGametes are produced in special organs call gonads. (female=ovaries; male= testes)An ovum leaves the ovary and travles down the fallopian tubes. If coitus (sexual intercourse) occurs and sperm cells are present in the fallopian tubes, fertilization may take place. The embryo then will begin a 40 wk gestation/ pregnancy in the uterus
3Ovaries Ovary= (oophor/o or ovari/o) Ovary=Female gonads or sex glands Located in the pelvic cavity and attached to the uterus by ligamentsGraafian Follicles: small sacs in the ovaries containing immature ovum. When the ovum matures, the follicle releases the ovum and ovulation occursBilateral Oophorectomy: (oophor/o=ovary; -ectomy= removal); female castration; removal of both ovariesBilateral Salping-oophorectomy: (salping/o=fallopian tubes; removal of both the fallopian tubes and ovariesPelvic exenteration- removal of internal and external organs in the region of the hip
4Fallopian TubesAdnexa Uteri- (adnexa=accessory); fallopian tubes and ovaries are considered accessory organsFallopian Tubes; (salping/o)Two tubes attached to the upper part of the uterusLateral ends located above the ovaries but no direct connectionFimbriae: finger-like projections help move the ovum from the ovary to the fallopian tubePassageway for ovum as it moves from the ovary to the uterusFertilization typically takes place in the fallopian tubesEctopic pregnancy: (ec-=outside; top=place/position; -ic= pertaining to); pregnancy outside the uterus often occurring in the fallopian tubesPyosalpinx- Py/o= pus; pus (infection) in fallopian tubes
6Uterus Uterus: (metr/o; metr/i; uter/o) Hollow, muscular , pear-shaped organLocated behind urinary bladder but in front of the rectum in pelvic cavityThree parts:Fundus- top sectionCorpus- body of organCervix- (neck) bottom section that attaches to the vaginaPap Smear- test for cervical cancer
7Uterus Functions: Organ of menstruation Allows for the development and growth of the fetusContracts to aid in expulsion of fetus during birthThree Layers:-Endometrium- (endo=in, within; metri/i=uterus) epithelial mucosa of uterus; layer that sloughs off during menstruation-Myometrium- (my/o=muscle; metr/i=uterus) the middle, muscular layer-Uterine Serosa: outer, membranous tissue layer
8Female Reproductive parts Vagina- (colp/o); muscular tube that connects cervix of uterus to the exterior of the body (PH acidic)Coloposcopy- visual exam of the vaginaVulva- (vulv/o); external female genitalia- Bartholin’s glands= two small glands on either side of vaginal opening that secretes mucous for lubricationLabia Majora= outer lips of vaginaLabia Minora= smaller, inner lips of vaginaClitoris= sensitive, erectile tissuePerineum= region b/w vaginal orifice and anusEpisiotomy- (episi/o=vulva; -tomy= incision) incision of perineum during childbirth
9Breasts or Mammary Glands Located in the upper anterior region of chestContain lobes separated into sections of connective and fatty tissuesMilk ducts (lactiferous) located in tissue on surface of nippleAerola- dark pigment around the nippleMammary papilla- nipple of the breastGynecomastia- (gyn/o=women); abnormal development of breast tissue in a MALE
13MenstruationMenarche= the beginning of menstruation at the time of pubertyMenstruation- monthly discharge of blood from the lining of the uterusMetrorrhagia- excessive flow b/w periodsFSH- _______________________________Produced by the endocrine gland located below the brainLH-_________________________________
14Menstruation and Pregnancy Menstrual cycle is divided into 28 days and 4 intervalsDay 1-5= shedding of uterine lining and bleeding is discharged through vagina (menstruation); FSH causes follicles to enlarge and secrete estrogen (begins endometrial repair) and sm amounts of progesteroneDay 6-12= endometrium begins to repair itself as the hormone estrogen is released by the graafian follicle in the ovary; surge of LH and the follicle ruptures and expels ovum leading to ovulationDay 13-14= ovulatory period (graafian follicle ruptures and the egg leaves the ovary to travel down the fallopian tubeDay 15-28= Estrogen and progesterone (hormone needed to sustain pregnancy and stimulates FSH & LH to shut off) are released and stimulates the building up of the endometrium in anticipation of fertilization; without fertilization FSH &LH shut down, estrogen and progesterone drop and endometrium begins process of sloughing off again***Days 12-15= Most likely to become pregnant during coitus
16PregnancyIf fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg (zygote) travels to the uterusImplantation occurs in endometriumPlacenta= vascular organ now forms within the uterine wallFetus is surrounded by amnion and amniotic fluidPlacenta produces a hormone called HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin); this is the hormone tested for in pregnancy testsPregnancy lasts for 9 months (gestation)Fetus is delivered with uterine contractions and this stimulates the cervix to dilate (widen)Placenta is delivered and known as “afterbirth”
17Terms Neonatology- (neo=new; nat/i=birth; -logy=study of); study of and treatment of newbornsParturition= the act of giving birthDystocia= painful labor and deliverOxytocia= rapid laborCephalic Version- turning the fetus during deliveryHysterectomy: (hyster/o=uterus, womb);Surgical removal of uterus-parous= to bring forth or bear-gravid/o= pregnancy
18ContraceptionBirth Control Pills: works on negative feedback mechanism; decreases FHS and LH from the anterior pituitary gland and thus no ovulation occurs=no fertilizationDiaphragm: A diaphragm is a thin rubber dome with a springy and flexible rim. It is inserted into the vagina, fits over the cervix and is held in place by vaginal muscles. A diaphragm holds spermicide in place over the cervix (opening to the uterus). Spermicide kills sperm, preventing fertilization. After intercourse, it should be left in place for 6-8 hours. Diaphragms are 86-94% effective as birth control.
19Intra-Uterine Device (IUD) IUD: Intra-Uterine Device; plastic or copper wire placed in uterus for long period of time; can cause PID
20ContraceptionNorplant- sub-dermal implants containing estrogen and progesterone can be effective up to 5 yearsCondom- latex covering over thetip of the penis and traps the sperm- Tubal Ligation- surgical sterilization to present the passage of the ovum-Rhythm Method- temporary abstinence; avoiding intercourse during 4 days before ovulation and 3 days after ovulation
21ContraceptionMini-Pill - Unlike the pill, the mini-pill only has one hormone, progestin, instead of both estrogen and progestin. Taken daily, the mini-pill thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. It also prevents a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus (womb). The mini-pill also can decrease the flow of your period and protect against PID and ovarian and endometrial cancer. A back-up method of birth control is needed if you take the pill more than three hours late.
22ContraceptionThe Female Condom – Worn by the woman, this barrier method keeps sperm from getting into her body. It is made of polyurethane, is packaged with a lubricant, and may protect against STDs, including HIV. It can be inserted up to 24 hours prior to sexual intercourse. Female condoms are 79 to 95% effective at preventing pregnancy. There is only one kind of female condom, called Reality.
23ContraceptionDepo-Provera – With this method women get injections, or shots, of the hormone progestin in the buttocks or arm every 3 months. It does not protect against STDs or HIV. Women should not use Depo-Provera for more than 2 years in a row because it can cause a temporary loss of bone density that increases the longer this method is used. The bone does start to grow after this method is stopped, but it may increase the risk of fracture and osteoporosis if used for a long time. It is 97% effective at preventing pregnancy.The Patch (Ortho Evra) –This is a skin patch worn on the lower abdomen, buttocks, or upper body. It releases the hormones progestin and estrogen into the bloodstream. You put on a new patch once a week for three weeks, and then do not wear a patch during the fourth week in order to have a menstrual period. The patch is 98 to 99% effective at preventing pregnancy, but appears to be less effective in women who weigh more than 198 pounds. It does not protect against STDs or HIV.
24ContraceptionContraceptive Sponge - This is a barrier method of birth control that was re-approved by the Food and Drug Administration in It is a soft, disk shaped device, with a loop for removal. It is made out of polyurethane foam and contains the spermicide nonoxynol-9. Before intercourse, you wet the sponge and place it, loop side down, up inside your vagina to cover the cervix. The sponge is 84 to 91% effective at preventing pregnancy in women who have not had a child and 68 to 80% for women who have had a child.The Hormonal Vaginal Contraceptive Ring (NuvaRing) – The NuvaRing is a ring that releases the hormones progestin and estrogen. You squeeze the ring between your thumb and index finger and insert it into your vagina. You wear the ring for three weeks, take it out for the week that you have your period, and then put in a new ring. The ring is 98 to 99% effective at preventing pregnancy. Pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and ischemic strokes are some of the side effects being associated with NuvaRing.
27Pathological Disease & Conditions Carcinoma of the cervix- malignant cells within the cervixConization- cone-shaped section of the cervix removedD & C- Dialation and Curettage- may be used to detect endometrial cancerCryocaurterization- freezing of tissue for removal/biopsyCervicitis- inflammation of the cervixLeukorrhea (whitish discharge)Carcinoma of the endometrium- malignant tumor of the uterusEndometriosis- endometrial tissue is found in abnormal locations; including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments or small intestinesFibroids- benign tumors in theuterus
28Pathological Disease & Conditions Ovarian Carcinoma- malignant tumor of the ovaryOvarian cysts- collections of fluid within a sac in the ovaryPID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)- inflammation in the pelvic regionCarcinoma of the breast (breast cancer)- malignant tumor or the breast arising from milk glands and ductsFibrocystic Disease- small sacs of tissue and fluid in the breast
30Pathological Disease & Conditions Abruptio Placentae- premature separation of the implanted placentaChoriocarcinoma- malignant tumor or the pregnant uterusEctopic Pregnacy- implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine locationPlacenta Previa- placental implantation over the cervical os or in the lower region of the uterine wallPreeclampsia- a condition that occurs during pregnancy or shortly afterwards and is marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema. If seizures occur, the condition is known as eclampsia or toxemia
32Neonatal ConditionsDown Syndrome- chromosomal abnormality results in mental retardation, stunted growth, flat face with short nose, low-set ears and slanted eyesErythroblastosis Fetalis- hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood group (RH factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetusHyaline Membrane Disease- respiratory problem primarily in the premature neonate; lack of protein in the lining of the lung tissue causes collapse of lungsHydrocephalus- accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brainKernicterus- high levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream of a neonate; leads to brain damage and mental retardationPyloric Stenosis- the narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum