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Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Medical Terminology: A Short Course 5 th Edition Davi-Ellen Chabner.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Medical Terminology: A Short Course 5 th Edition Davi-Ellen Chabner."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Medical Terminology: A Short Course 5 th Edition Davi-Ellen Chabner

2 Female Reproductive System Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Learning Objectives  Name the major organs of the female reproductive system, their locations, and combining forms.  Explain how these organs and their hormones function in the processes of menstruation and pregnancy.  Identify abnormal conditions of the female reproductive system and of the newborn child.

4 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives (cont’d.)  Describe important laboratory tests and clinical procedures used in gynecology and obstetrics, and recognize related abbreviations.  Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.

5 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. I NTRODUCTION Sexual Reproduction  Union of the nuclei of ovum and sperm cell  Ovum and Sperm cells are called gamete  Each Gamete contains half the number of chromosomes of a normal body cell.

6 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. I NTRODUCTION Gametes (ovum and sperm cell)  Gametes are produced in the gonads.  Female gonads are the ovaries; male gonads are the testes.

7 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Fertilization  An ovum leaves the ovaries and travels through the fallopian tube.  Fertilization takes place if sperm cells are present and unite with the ovum.  Fertilized egg implants then divides to form a ball of cells, called a zygote (and later an embryo and then a fetus). I NTRODUCTION

8 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  Organs of the female reproductive system, lateral view. ORGANS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

9 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  Organs of the female reproductive system anterior view – p. 230 anterior view – p. 230 ORGANS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

10 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  The Breast sagittal view sagittal view ORGANS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

11 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY MENSTRUAL CYCLE  Day 1-5 Blood cells, endometrial cells, and glandular secretions discharge from the body secretions discharge from the body  Day 6-12 Estrogen aids repair of endometrium. The ovum grows in the follicle. The ovum grows in the follicle.  Day Egg leaves the ovary and passes through the fallopian tube the fallopian tube  Day Corpus luteum secretes progesterone; uterus lining builds up. uterus lining builds up.

12 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY MENSTRUAL CYCLE

13 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY PREGNANCY  If fertilization occurs, the egg implants in the uterine endometrium  Placenta forms within the uterine wall  Amnion holds the fetus in an amniotic cavity  Nutrients, oxygen and wastes exchange between fetus and mother  Placenta produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

14 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY A. Implantation in the uterus. B. Embryo’s relationship to the placenta

15 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY PREGNANCY  Progesterone maintains placenta development  Uterus expands as fetus grows  Normal delivery fetal position in cephalic presentation (head first)

16 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY PREGNANCY  THREE PHASES of Labor 1.Dilation of the cervix 2.Birth of the infant 3.Delivery of the placenta

17 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. MENSTRUATION AND PREGNANCY A, Cephalic presentation. B, Delivery of the placenta.

18 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. HORMONAL INTERACTIONS  Pituitary secretes:  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)  Luteinizing hormone (LH)  Pituitary stops producing FSH and LH  During pregnancy  With oral contraceptives

19 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Hormonal Interactions (cont’d.)  Menopause  Gradual ending of the menstrual cycle  Normally begins between 45 and 55  Estrogen levels fall  Option for Estrogen replacement therapy (careful consideration of risks required)

20 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  cervic/ocervix, neck  colp/ovagina  hyster/outerus, womb  mamm/obreast  mast/obreast  metri/outerus  uter/outerus Combining FormMeaning TERMINOLOGY: COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND PREFIXES

21 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. COMBINING FORMS  o/oegg  oophor/oovary  ovari/oovary  salping/ofallopian tube Combining FormMeaning TERMINOLOGY: COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND PREFIXES

22 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: Which term means removal of the breast? Which term means removal of the breast? A. hysterectomy B. mastectomy C. mastitis D. mammoplasty

23 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PATHOLOGY: Uterus  Amenorrhea Absence of menstrual flow  Cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix Inflammation of the cervix  Carcinoma of the endometrium Malignant tumor of the uterus Malignant tumor of the uterus  Dysmenorrhea painful menstrual flow  Endometriosis Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus

24 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PATHOLOGY: Uterus – (cont.)  Menorrhagia  Excessive discharge (-rrhagia)  Fibroids  Benign tumors of the uterus  Figure shows location of uterine fibroids. p. 86

25 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Pathology: Gynecological and Breast  Breast  Carcinoma of the breast  Fibrocystic disease

26 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PATHOLOGY: Ovaries  Ovarian carcinoma Malignant tumor of the ovary Malignant tumor of the ovary  Ovarian cysts Collections of fluid within a sac in the ovary Collections of fluid within a sac in the ovary Fallopian Tubes  Pelvic inflammatory disease Examples: salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis Examples: salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis

27 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Pathology: Breast Carcinoma of the breast Image A shows (arrows) mammogram of invasive carcinoma of the breast. Image B is a cut section of invasive ductal cardinoma of the breast.

28 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PATHOLOGY: Pregnancy  Abruptio placentae  Premature separation of the implanted placenta  Choriocarcinoma  Malignant tumor of the placenta  Ectopic pregnancy  Misplaced implantation of egg  Placenta previa  Preeclampsia

29 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PATHOLOGY: Neonatal  Down syndrome  Hydrocephalus  Meconium aspiration syndrome

30 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PATHOLOGY: Neonatal  APGAR SCORING CHART  Assessment of newborn  Scoring 1 to 5 mins after birth

31 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Clinical Tests and Procedures Clinical tests  Pap smear  Pregnancy test Procedures  X-rays: Mammogram – p. 94  Ultrasound  Gynecological procedures: Tubal Ligation – p. 17  Procedures during pregnancy: Aminocentesis – p.91

32 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Clinical Procedures Gynecological procedures  Conization  Removal of a cone- shaped section of the cervix.  Figure shows LEEP for cone biospsy

33 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Clinical Procedures Gynecological procedures  Laparoscopic Oophorectomy – P.92  A. Ovary placed in plastic bag.  B. Extracted through the laparoscope

34 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Clinical Tests and Procedures Procedures during pregnancy  Amniocentesis – p. 91 Needle placement guided by ultrasound images. Needle placement guided by ultrasound images.

35 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. REVIEW SHEET COMBINING FORMS  cervic/o_________  colp/o_________  vagin/o _________  hyster/o _________  mamm/o _________  mast/o _________  metri/o_________ Combining FormMeaning

36 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. REVIEW SHEET COMBINING FORMS  uter/o __________  o/o __________  oophor/o __________  ovari/o__________  salping/o__________ Combining FormMeaning

37 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. COMBINING FORMS  cervic/ocervix, neck  colp/ovagina  vaginavagina  hyster/outerus, womb  mamm/obreast  mast/obreast  metri/outerus  uter/outerus Combining FormMeaning REVIEW SHEET

38 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. COMBINING FORMS  o/oegg  oophor/oovary  ovari/oovary  salping/ofallopian tube Combining FormMeaning REVIEW SHEET

39 Copyright © 2008, 2005 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. What are these useful abbreviations? p. 233  CS  D&C  DUB  GYN  HRT  IVF  OF  PID  TAH-BSO


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