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Chapter 12 1 + 1 = 3 (or More).

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 1 + 1 = 3 (or More)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 1 + 1 = 3 (or More)

2 The Reproductive System
The reproductive system is responsible for the act of producing offspring. Both male and female organs are needed. Theriogenology means animal reproduction. Ovaries and Testes are also part of the endocrine system (gonads) 2

3 The Male Reproductive System
The male reproductive system is responsible for the production and delivery of sperm to the egg to create life. The structures of the male reproductive system include the scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, accessory sex glands, urethra, and penis.


5 The Scrotum The scrotum or scrotal sac is the external pouch that encloses and supports the testes The combining form for the scrotum is scrot/o. .Epidymis and Ductus Deferens is also found here 5

6 The Testes The testes or testicles are the male sex glands that produce spermatozoa. The combining forms for the testes are orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o, and testicul/o. Testis is the singular form of testes.

7 The Epididymis The epididymis is the tube at the upper part of each testis that secretes part of the semen, stores semen, and provides a passageway for sperm. The combining form for the epididymis is epididym/o. Semen is the fluid that the sperm is suspended in. use updated art from core book 12-4 [reduce b/b space below heading to make more room for art] [use italic: epididym/o]

8 The Vas Deferens Vas Deferens The vas (ductus) deferens is the tube connected to the epididymis that carries sperm into the pelvic region toward the urethra.

9 Neuter A “tunic” surrounds the testis, and epidymis
The “cut” is made at the Vas Deferens

10 Testis and epidymis Enclosed in tunic 2. Incision is made in tunic Testis (followed by Epidymis and Vas Defrens) 4. Tunic is separated and tucked back into the dog


12 If you ever wondered… The testes produce the sperm (and testosterone)
The testicles are the testes, the vas deferens and the epidymis The two terms are often used interchangeably, But really do have slightly different meanings.

13 The Accessory Sex Glands
The accessory sex glands include the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland. Seminal vesicles secrete a thick substance that nourishes sperm. The prostate gland secretes a thick fluid that aids in the motility of sperm. The bulbourethral gland secrete a thick mucus that acts as a lubricant for sperm. Not all glands are present in all species.

14 The Accessory Sex Glands

15 The Urethra The urethra is a tube passing through the penis to the outside of the body that serves the reproductive and urinary systems. The combining form for the urethra is urethr/o.


17 The Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system is responsible for the creation and support of new life. The structures of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, and mammary glands.


19 The Ovaries The ovaries are a small pair of organs located in the caudal abdomen. The ovaries produce estrogen, progesterone, and ova (eggs). The combining forms for ovary are ovari/o and oophor/o.

20 The Ovaries Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone stimulate the ovaries (cycle). The ovaries produce estrogen to prepare the reproductive tract for breeding After ovulation (release of mature ova) ovary produces progesterone to maintain pregnancy

21 The Uterine Tubes The uterine tubes are paired tubes that extend from the cranial portion of the uterus to the ovary (although they are not physically attached to the ovary). Also called fallopian tubes or oviduct.

22 The Uterine Tubes The uterine tubes carry ova from the ovary to the uterus and transport sperm.

23 The Uterus The uterus is a thick-walled, hollow organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining. Animals have extensions called uterine horns. The combining forms for the uterus are hyster/o, metr/o, metri/o, and uter/o.

24 The Cervix The cervix is the caudal continuation of the uterus and the cranial continuation of the vagina. The cervix prevents foreign substances from entering the uterus. 24

25 Human Reproductive Tract

26 Terms: Reproductive Phases
Proestrus Follicles of ovary start to grow Estrogen is produced Lining of uterus develops Estrus Female is receptive/ “in heat” Diestrus Corpus luteum develops Estrogen production subsides Progesterone is produced Anestrus Cycle is at rest

27 The Placenta The placenta is the female organ of mammals that develops during pregnancy and joins mother and offspring for exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products. The placenta is often referred to as the afterbirth.

28 The Placenta The umbilical cord is the structure that forms where the fetus communicates with the placenta. The umbilicus is the structure that forms on the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord was connected to the fetus. The combining form for umbilicus is umbilic/o.

29 Pregnancy and Birth Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing fetus in the uterus and is the time period between conception and parturition. The combining form for pregnancy is pregn/o.

30 Pregnancy and Birth Gestation is the period of development of the fetus in the uterus from conception to parturition and is the term more commonly used in animals. The combining forms for gestation are gest/o and gestat/o.

31 Pregnancy and Birth Parturition is the act of giving birth.
The combining form for giving birth is part/o.

32 Pregnancy and Birth Parturition is divided into stages:
first stage = dilation of the cervix second stage = uterine contractions and delivery of the fetus third stage = separation of the placenta from the uterus

33 Pathological Condition
Cryptorchid Pyometra Dystocia C-section

34 Cryptorchid Testicle never made it to the scrotum
Crypt/o = Hidden Orchid/o = Testes Monorchid Testicle never made it to the scrotum Can be difficult to locate abdominal Inguinal Dogs should be neutered! genetic (inherited “defect”) prone to cancer

35 Other male “problems” Up to one month after being neutered sperm
may still be present in other areas of the repro tract Paraphimosis-  inability to retract the erect penis back within the prepuce. can cause tissue necrosis (cut off blood supply) needs to be cleaned, lubricated, and placed back inside prepuce What is the prepuce – “foreskin”

36 Pyometra Pyo = pus Metr/o = uterus Bacteria make their way into uterus
Closed pyo –cervix is closed/ closed environment -no where for pus to go Open pyo –cervix is open, infection can drain out Tends to occur about a month after estrus

37 Pyometra Surgery
Start at 2 min

38 Dystocia Difficult birth Size of babies Age of the female
Condition/health of the female Strength of contractions Size of the birth canal

39 When is it dystocia? Parturition that does not occur within 24 hr
after a drop in rectal temperature to <100°F strong abdominal contractions lasting for 1–2 hr without passage of a puppy or kitten a resting period during active labor >4–6 hr Pain abnormal vulvar discharge eg, frank blood, dark green discharge before any neonates are born [indicates placental separation]

40 C-Section Caesarian Section
Pups or Kittens are in placental sacs within the horns of the uterus

41 C-Section Start at 2 min

42 Spay/ Neuter Surgeries
Spay (Ovariohysterectomy) Ovari/o = ovary Hyster/o = uterus Watch starting at 7 minutes ( Neuter

43 The END!

44 Medical Terms for the Reproductive System
Additional terms for reproductive system tests, pathology, and procedures can be found in the text. Review StudyWARE to make sure you understand these terms.

45 The Mammary Glands Mammary glands are composed of connective tissue organized into lobes, lobules, and alveoli. The combining forms for the mammary glands are mamm/o and mast/o.

46 The Placenta and Associated Structures
The innermost membrane that envelopes the fetus is the amnion. The innermost layer of the placenta that forms a sac between itself and the amnion is the allantois. The outermost layer of the placenta is the chorion.

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