2The Reproductive System The reproductive system is responsible for the act of producing offspring.Both male and female organs are needed.Theriogenology means animal reproduction.Ovaries and Testes are also part of theendocrine system (gonads)2
3The Male Reproductive System The male reproductive system is responsible for the production and delivery of sperm to the egg to create life.The structures of the male reproductive system include the scrotum, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, accessory sex glands, urethra, and penis.
5The ScrotumThe scrotum or scrotal sac is the external pouch that encloses and supports the testesThe combining form for the scrotum is scrot/o..Epidymis and Ductus Deferens is also found here5
6The TestesThe testes or testicles are the male sex glands that produce spermatozoa.The combining forms for the testes are orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o, and testicul/o.Testis is the singular form of testes.
7The EpididymisThe epididymis is the tube at the upper part of each testis that secretes part of the semen, stores semen, and provides a passageway for sperm.The combining form for the epididymis is epididym/o.Semen is the fluid that the sperm is suspended in.use updated art from core book 12-4[reduce b/b space below heading to make more room for art][use italic: epididym/o]
8The Vas DeferensVas DeferensThe vas (ductus) deferens is the tube connected to the epididymis that carries sperm into the pelvic region toward the urethra.
9Neuter A “tunic” surrounds the testis, and epidymis The “cut” is made at the Vas Deferens
10Testis and epidymisEnclosed in tunic2. Incision is made in tunicTestis (followed byEpidymis and Vas Defrens)4. Tunic is separated and tucked back into the dog
12If you ever wondered… The testes produce the sperm (and testosterone) The testicles are the testes,the vas deferens and the epidymisThe two terms are often used interchangeably,But really do have slightly different meanings.
13The Accessory Sex Glands The accessory sex glands include the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland.Seminal vesicles secrete a thick substance that nourishes sperm.The prostate gland secretes a thick fluid that aids in the motility of sperm.The bulbourethral gland secrete a thick mucus that acts as a lubricant for sperm.Not all glands are present in all species.
17The Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system is responsible for the creation and support of new life.The structures of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, and mammary glands.
19The OvariesThe ovaries are a small pair of organs located in the caudal abdomen.The ovaries produce estrogen, progesterone, and ova (eggs).The combining forms for ovary are ovari/o and oophor/o.
20The OvariesFollicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone stimulate the ovaries (cycle).The ovaries produce estrogen to prepare the reproductive tract for breedingAfter ovulation (release of mature ova) ovary produces progesterone to maintain pregnancy
21The Uterine TubesThe uterine tubes are paired tubes that extend from the cranial portion of the uterus to the ovary (although they are not physically attached to the ovary).Also called fallopian tubes or oviduct.
22The Uterine TubesThe uterine tubes carry ova from the ovary to the uterus and transport sperm.
23The UterusThe uterus is a thick-walled, hollow organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining.Animals have extensions called uterine horns.The combining forms for the uterus are hyster/o, metr/o, metri/o, and uter/o.
24The CervixThe cervix is the caudal continuation of the uterus and the cranial continuation of the vagina.The cervix prevents foreign substances from entering the uterus.24
26Terms: Reproductive Phases ProestrusFollicles of ovary start to growEstrogen is producedLining of uterus developsEstrusFemale is receptive/ “in heat”DiestrusCorpus luteum developsEstrogen production subsidesProgesterone is producedAnestrusCycle is at rest
27The PlacentaThe placenta is the female organ of mammals that develops during pregnancy and joins mother and offspring for exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products.The placenta is often referred to as the afterbirth.
28The PlacentaThe umbilical cord is the structure that forms where the fetus communicates with the placenta.The umbilicus is the structure that forms on the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord was connected to the fetus.The combining form for umbilicus is umbilic/o.
29Pregnancy and BirthPregnancy is the condition of having a developing fetus in the uterus and is the time period between conception and parturition.The combining form for pregnancy is pregn/o.
30Pregnancy and BirthGestation is the period of development of the fetus in the uterus from conception to parturition and is the term more commonly used in animals.The combining forms for gestation are gest/o and gestat/o.
31Pregnancy and Birth Parturition is the act of giving birth. The combining form for giving birth is part/o.
32Pregnancy and Birth Parturition is divided into stages: first stage = dilation of the cervixsecond stage = uterine contractions and delivery of the fetusthird stage = separation of the placenta from the uterus
34Cryptorchid Testicle never made it to the scrotum Crypt/o = HiddenOrchid/o = TestesMonorchidTesticle never made it to the scrotumCan be difficult to locateabdominalInguinalDogs should be neutered!genetic (inherited “defect”)prone to cancer
35Other male “problems” Up to one month after being neutered sperm may still be present in other areas of therepro tractParaphimosis- inability to retract the erect penis back within the prepuce.can cause tissue necrosis (cut off blood supply)needs to be cleaned, lubricated, and placed back inside prepuceWhat is the prepuce – “foreskin”
36Pyometra Pyo = pus Metr/o = uterus Bacteria make their way into uterus Closed pyo –cervix is closed/ closed environment-no where for pus to goOpen pyo –cervix is open, infection can drain outTends to occur about a month after estrus
37Pyometra Surgery https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7o611VAiB0 Start at 2 min
38Dystocia Difficult birth Size of babies Age of the female Condition/health of the femaleStrength of contractionsSize of the birth canal
39When is it dystocia? Parturition that does not occur within 24 hr after a drop in rectal temperature to <100°Fstrong abdominal contractions lasting for 1–2 hrwithout passage of a puppy or kittena resting period during active labor >4–6 hrPainabnormal vulvar dischargeeg, frank blood,dark green discharge before any neonates are born[indicates placental separation]
40C-Section Caesarian Section Pups or Kittens are in placental sacs within thehorns of the uterus
41C-Section https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7hzobft254 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HhrgON5MxYStart at 2 min
44Medical Terms for the Reproductive System Additional terms for reproductive system tests, pathology, and procedures can be found in the text.Review StudyWARE to make sure you understand these terms.
45The Mammary GlandsMammary glands are composed of connective tissue organized into lobes, lobules, and alveoli.The combining forms for the mammary glands are mamm/o and mast/o.
46The Placenta and Associated Structures The innermost membrane that envelopes the fetus is the amnion.The innermost layer of the placenta that forms a sac between itself and the amnion is the allantois.The outermost layer of the placenta is the chorion.