Presentation on theme: "Entrepreneurship Curriculum Program Impact Study in Mozambique: Some results and challenges for the future Anabela Dinis Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues NECE."— Presentation transcript:
Entrepreneurship Curriculum Program Impact Study in Mozambique: Some results and challenges for the future Anabela Dinis Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues NECE Research Centre University of Beira Interior, Portugal
Presentation outline Introduction Methodology Some Results How to study impact in the future
INTRODUCTION The study intended to evaluate the impact of the Entrepreneurship Curriculum Programme (ECP) directed to teenager students in Mozambique – A programme implemented by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Mozambique, developed by UNIDO under the "Entrepreneurship development for the youth" project, funded by the Norwegian Government.
Some clues in literature… In spite of the fact that positive results are reported by studies on some entrepreneurship programs, other studies raise doubts regarding the efficacy of entrepreneurship education. These studies usually emphasise changes in attitudes, intentions and behaviours but also the economic and social results of such behaviours,. Literature review but also the empirical experience of the professionals involved in the programme give some clues about the influence of personal factors – especially gender - and contextual factors in the impact of entrepreneurship education. Researchers have also argued that investments in the development of entrepreneurship education sector most probably only deliver long- term returns, especially in the context of durable social problems. This idea is reinforced when considering Entrepreneurship Education Programmes directed to young people.
Methodology Key informantsGoals (1 to 3)InformationData gathering Students With ECP Without ECP 1.Attitudes and intentions and behaviours 3.Identification of factors that might shape the ECP impact Comparison of students with and without NE in order to determine the subject’s most immediate impacts on students and identify personal factors constraining that impact Questionnaires (ECP students: n=4032) (Non-ECP students: n=664) Graduates With ECP 1.Attitudes and intentions and behaviours Identification of the subject’s medium-term impacts and detection of personal factors influencing that impact Questionnaires (n=93) Educational agents Teachers Other agents 1.Attitudes and intentions and behaviours 3.Identification of contextual factors that might affect the impact of ECP Data triangulation and identification of socioeconomic, infrastructural and educational factors that condition that impact Questionnaires (Teachers, n=85) Interviews (Other staff=51) Community Families Entrepreneurs Other organisations 2. Indirect impact on the community Evaluation of the subject’s impact on the community (actual or potential) and data triangulation Interviews (Families=19) (Entrepreneurs=37) (other organizations=22)
Selection of key-informants Sampling strategy: A stratified sample was developed to identify the schools to be included in the study, taking into consideration variations among the provinces and type of school. The schools included in each stratum were chosen via random number generation applied to a list containing all schools. In each school/community it was collected information from several key-informants.
Sample of schools 32 schools were selected (7% of the total of schools). All provinces were included 8 Group NorthCentreSouth Total UrbanRuralUrbanRuralUrbanRural GSETPVEGSETPVEGSETPVEGSETPVEGSETPVEGSETPVE Schools with ECP Schools without ECP Total South 1443,8% Centre 618,8% North 1237,5% Urban2268,8% Rural1031,3% GSE2575,8% TPVE824,2% With ECP2784,4% Without ECP515,6%
Collected data Quantitative Students with ECP: n=4032 ( Maximum sampling error of 1,5%, with a significance level of 95% and p=q=0,5 ) Students without ECP: n=664 ( Maximum sampling error of 3,8%, with a significance level of 95% and p=q=0,5 ) Graduates with ECP: n=93 (convenience sample) ECP teachers: n=85 (convenience sample) 9 Qualitative Other educative agents: including school’s directors and pedagogical directors (51 interviewers) Family (19 interviewers) Entrepreneurs and economic and business organisations (36 interviewers) Responsible for other organisations (NGO) (22 interviewers)
Some results Some results have already been presented in other forums – National consultation meeting:Entrepreneurship development for the youth – Investing in future generations, Maputo 2 – 3 October 2013 General presentation of the impact study – ICSB 2014, Dublin, June Short and long-term impact on students Results point out the existence of different impacts of entrepreneurship education to teenagers in the short and medium-long term. ECP contribute to increase the perception of important entrepreneurship aspects, as well as to create a real vision of entrepreneurship problems. Once outside the education system and given the need to find ways to support themselves and their families, graduates “activate” some entrepreneurial attitudes, intentions and behaviours and gain a greater perception of the importance and relevance of entrepreneurship education in comparison to students still attending ECP.
Now we will focus on factors affecting the impact of ECP, i.e. findings regarding differences between – rural/urban – type of schools – gender
Rural vs Urban
Differences related to attitudes, intentions and behaviours and assessments of the Notions of Entrepreneurship subject by students at rural and urban schools
Differences in assessments of the Notions of Entrepreneurship subject by students attending ECPs in rural and in urban schools
Did the student create a business in the past? Total NoYes School location Rural 449 (61.2%) 285 (38.8%) 734 (100.0%) Urban 2206 (71.3%) 886 (28.7%) 3092 (100.0%) Note: Pearson’s Qui-square = ; sig.=.000 Does the student want to become an entrepreneur in the future? Total NoYes School location Rural 329 (45.1%)401 (54.9%) 730 (100.0%) Urban 1317 (51.6%)1236 (48.4%)2553 (100.0%) Note: Pearson’s Qui-square = 9.647; sig.=.002 School location vs. past business creation (ECP students) school location vs. job for future (ECP students)
General Secondary Schools vs Professional Schools
Construct means for ECP students in general (ESG) and professional (ETPV) schools ConstructESGETPV t statistic p Personal attitudes Perceived behavioural control * Subjective norms * Entrepreneurial intention * Locus of control Propensity to risk Self-confidence Need for achievement ** Tolerance to ambiguity * Innovativeness * Social acceptability (SA)*
School type vs. future job (ECP students) Does the student want to become an entrepreneur in the future? Total NoYes School Professional 268 (42.5%) 363 (57.5%) 631 ( 100.0%) General secondary 1378 (52.0%) 1274 (48.0%) 2652 (100.0%) Total 1646 (50.1%) 1637 (49.9%) 3283 (100.0%) Pearson’s Qui-square = ; sig.=.000
Girls vs Boys
Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions : non- ECP students
Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions ECP students
Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions : graduate students
"I think a problem does exist, basically mostly in female students, with some facing difficulties after having children early and with them come problems of money to feed their children. But they also have the will to continue studying, because we can say that was a mishap in life and so they want to straighten out their lives. Then, they always end up finding alternatives and I think that sparked some interest so they are able to start that business and that creates some dynamics in them. (...) In boys not so much" (1 st Cycle pedagogical deputy director) Much has changed in our mentalities, (…) there was a time we [women] did not do business. It was just about being at home in bygone days: waking up at home, taking care of the house, taking care of the husband. But nowadays, because of this entrepreneurship, they hear entrepreneurship here, entrepreneurship there, so it is changing their way of being. There are many entrepreneurial women, even those who don’t go to school. (...) for the rural areas, entrepreneurship is focused more on men (NE subject coordinator and teacher)
Findings There are significant differences in the results returned from rural and urban schools. students from rural areas attending entrepreneurship programme are more inclined to start their own businesses there are significant differences in terms of Entrepreneurial Intention, psychological characteristics (locus of control, propensity to risk, self-confidence, innovativeness) and perception of social acceptability (more scored by rural)
There are significant differences in the results returned from general secondary schools and Professional schools. ECP Students of Professional schools in general present higher Entrepreneurial Intentions, and higher scores on entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviours The proportion of ECP students in Professional schools that have already created a business and want to become entrepreneurs in the future is higher when compared to those of general secondary schools.
Regarding personal factors, the results display differences in terms of gender The ECP programme in the short-term shows higher impact on boys than on girls, making more evident the differences in attitudes and behaviours. However, in graduate students, girls tend to present higher scores but specially concerning entrepreneurial intentions. Boys present higher scores in innovativeness.
In sum.. ECP seems to present higher impact in rural areas. This difference may be explained by the living conditions prevailing in rural areas. Different kinds of schools present different impacts. Why? Students with different interests or teachers with different characteristics/methods? Entrepreneuship education matters but it is not enough to mitigate differences in gender attitudes and behaviours in the short term. In the medium-long term it seems to produce some effect. Impacts on girls seems to be more related with necessity, meanwhile in boys with opportunity
Some challanges for the future ECP seems to be more valued in rural areas. However, in these areas, the lower rate of business activities may pose an additional difficulty to the effective implementation and consequent impact of the NE subject. This should be further researched including an assessment of the number and characteristics of firms created in rural vs urban areas by ECP students and graduates Will ECP be more suitable to professional/vocational schools ? Or should general schools adopt some of the methodologies followed by professional schools? ECP do not seems to be enough effective in mitigating differences in gender attitudes and behaviours in the short term. How to make it more effective?
Studying Entrepreneurship Education impact Suggestions for future studies
Challenges for studying EE impact Who When How What
Who to assess What has changed in – Students – Graduates – Communities/Regions – Economy – Firms Concern with data availability (are there macro level statistics available?)
When to assess Impact studies should focus on the long term – Longitudinal studies – Study performance of EE graduates in the workplace (most of them won’t become entrepreneurs). This is more relevant in least developed countries (Mwasalwiba, 2010). Concern with students’ and graduates’ databases availability
How to assess Surveys (longitudinal design, with control group) – Students – Graduates – Teachers In-depth interviews (and/or focus groups) – Family members – Educational agents – Business people – Community members Economic secondary data – Start-ups – Local wealth gains Concern with: – Secondary data availability – Surveys length
What to assess Students – Change in students’: Attitudes Entrepreneurial intention Self-efficacy Entrepreneurial skills Entrepreneurial behaviour Academic standards Concern with the cost and difficulty of doing it longitudinally
What to assess (cont.) Graduates (and/or former students) – In the workplace (working for others) Performance Personal and career satisfaction Networking skills and behaviour – Start-ups Number of new firms Opportunity recognition Innovativeness Business performance Jobs created Personal and career satisfaction Networking skills and behaviour Concern with: – graduates databases creation and update, – follow-up costs
What to assess Teachers – Knowledge – Motivation – Attitude