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Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Sub-Saharan Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sub-Saharan Africa

2 Introduction Cultural complexity The world’s fastest growing region
Language, religion, ethnicity, colonialism The world’s fastest growing region 45% of population is younger than 15 years old Low economic output 1% of global output with 11% population Mounting debt  structural adjustment programs Structural adjustment programs - controversial economic measures designed to reduce government spending and encourage private sector initiatives

3 Environmental Geography

4 Elevated landmass Low Africa Great Rift Valley High Africa
Great Escarpment

5 Plateaus Escarpment Mountain range
Forms when plateau abruptly ends (eg. falls)  impedes river navigation  low connectivity in this region Great Escarpment: refers to coastal escarpment in south  narrow coastal plane  few human settlement in the coast Mountain range Volcanic mountains in southern half of the Great Rift Valley (eg. Killimanjaro, Mount Kenya)  created in divergent plate boundary

6 Divergent plate boundary
Ridge Rift Valley The Rift Valley In the Eastern Africa, this geological forces produce gash along the boundary (eg. Lake Nyasa, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria)  fertile soil, abundant water  dense settlement in eastern Africa

7 Eastern Africa is slowly being torn away from the rest of the continent; in tens of millions of years, eastern African will be separated from Africa

8 Watersheds Congo River (or Zaire) Nile River The Second largest river
Bndry. betw. Rep. of Congo and Demo. Rep. of Congo Nile River The Longest river Lifeblood of Egypt, Sudan Connects between North and Sub-Saharan Africa

9 Watersheds Niger River Zambezi River
Critical source of water for the arid countries Mali, Niger, Nigeria Historic city – Tombouctou (11th century) Zambezi River Major supplier of commercial energy Kariba Res, Cabora Bassa Res. Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique Victoria falls in Zambezi River, Boundary of Namibia to have an access to Zambezi River

10 Soils Relatively infertile
 can’t support intensive agriculture Soil fertility explains patterns of settlement Rift valley Rwanda, Brundi, Ethiopia, Kenya Nigeria

11 Mostly tropical climates (Af, Aw, BSh, BWh) except for South Africa

12 Tropical forests (Af) Warm to hot temperature; year-round precipitation Relatively intact (cf. SE Asia, Latin America) Low population Oil exports Political chaos

13 Savannas (Aw) Wrapped around rain forest
Mixture of trees and tall grasses Critical habitat for large fauna Eg. Masai Mara Nat’l Park, Kenya Dry winter, See p231 for the picture

14 Deserts Sahara Desert, Namib Desert, Kalahari Desert
To see the location of deserts, see p226

15 Midlatitude climates South Africa Southwestern Eastern coast
Mediterranean climate (Csb)  wine production Eastern coast subtropical climate (Cfa)

16 Highland Exhibits altitudinal zonation Montane zones Rift Valley zone
Drakensberg Range

17 Desertification in the Sahel
Between Sahara Desert and Savanna southward Transhumance Movement of animals between wet-season and dry-season pasture  adequate precipitation is essential for livelihood Drought ( ) Desert-like condition began to move south Threaten the livelihoods of farmers and pastoralists

18 What causes the Sahelian drought?
Human-induced environmental degradation Expansion of agriculture  loss of natural vegetation, declines in soil fertility eg. peanuts production during the French colonial rule Overgrazing Expansion of animal production after WWII eg. wells digging to supply water Climatic fluctuation

19 Deforestation Often occurs in Savanna rather than rain forest
 shortage of biofuel; Green Belt Movement

20 Deforestation Central Africa’s Ituri rain forest
Deforested for logging Madagascar’s eastern rain forest  endangered biodiversity Lemur

21 Wildlife conservation
Diseases kept people and livestock out of the areas  Survival of wildlife Wildlife reserves are in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania) Southern Africa (Zimbabwe) Poaching (eg. ivory trade) is a problem


23 Population and Settlement



26 Overall, not densely populated
Similar to that of U.S. Young population, large families  population growth  family planning policies in the 1980s High child mortality, low life expectancy  low access to basic health services

27 Population density Crude population density Physiological density
Population / area Physiological density # people per unit of arable land Agricultural density # farmers per unit of arable land Even though Sub-Saharan Africa has low crude population density, it has high agricultural density

28 Family size Large families are encouraged by Rural lifestyle
Seen as a source of labor, and social security Ethnic rivalries More number is affiliated with high political influence High child mortality rates Limited education to women

29 Family size Recently growth rate has weaken due to Government policies
Urbanization AIDS


31 Nigeria: 127 million

32 Population concentration
West Africa, Highland East Africa  Fertile soil, permanent agriculture Eastern half of South Africa Urbanized economy based on mining Forced relocation of black South Africans into eastern homelands

33 Subsistence crops Poor tropical soils  shifting cultivation (or swidden)  can’t support high population density Staple crops (millet, sorghum, corn, and tubers) all over the region Yam in West Africa (eg. Ibo: southeastern Nigeria) Irrigated rice in West Africa, and Madagascar

34 Plantation crops Coffee: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Brundi, Tanzania
Peanuts: Sahel Cotton: Sudan, Central African Republic Cocoa: Ghana, Ivory Coast Rubber: Liberia Palm oil: Nigeria

35 Herding and livestock Extremely important in semiarid zones
Camel, goats in Sahara; cow father south of Sahara Symbiotic relationships with neighboring farmers Manure of stocks can fertilize the soil; exchanged for grain But often pastoralists independent of agriculture (eg. Masai) Difficult environment for raising livestock because of infestation of tsetse flies (eg. Central Africa)

36 Historic cities Axum, Ethiopia (1st century)
Capital of ancient empire Tombouctou, Gao in the Sahel (11th century) Trans-Saharan trader centers Zanzibar(Tanzania), Mombasar(Kenya) (12th century) established by Arab traders Rooted in Swahili language

37 West African cities Ibadan, Nigeria – settled by Yoruba (12th century)
Lagos, Nigeria – 12 million, Yoruba Lagos

38 Accra, Ghana – settled by Ga (16th century)
Colonial administrative center in the late 1800s Division along income lines

39 South African cities Colonial origin unlike that of west Africa
eg. Lusaka (Zambia), Harare(Zimbabwe), and metropolitan areas in South Africa  rich minerals South Africa eg. Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town Reflects the legacy of apartheid

40 Racial segregation in Cape Town

41 Cultural Coherence and Diversity

42 No institutionalized form of religion No widespread unified language
Many of African are multilingual Lacks a history of widespread political union Common history of slavery and colonialism

43 African language groups
Can be divided into two types (1) Associated with other parts of the world Afro-Asiatic (North Africa, Ethiopia, Somali)  Islam Austronesian (Madacascar)  indonesian settlement Indo-European (French, English, Afrikaans)  colonialism (2) Unique to the region Nilo-Saharan (Southern Sudan, Sahel) Khoisan (Kalahari) Niger-Congo  Bantu migration

44 Bantu Migration

45 Swahili is the most widely spoken Sub-Saharan language

46 Religion Combine animist practices and ideas with their observances of Christianity and Islam

47 Introduction of Christianity
A.D. 200 ~ Northern Ethiopia: Coptic form of Christianity 1600s ~ South Africa: European settlers and missionaries (1600s) Dutch settlers Mid 1800s ~ Former British colony – Protestant Christianity Former French, Belgian, Portuguese colony – Catholicism U.S. – Pentecostal, Evangelical, Mormon

48 Introduction of Islam 1000 years ago introduced to Sahel from North Africa Later, southward spread from Sahel

49 Interaction between religious traditions
Unlike other regions, religion is not a source of political conflict in the Sub-Saharan Africa with the exception of Sudan Coexistence Nigeria: Hausa (north) & Igbo, Yoruba (south) Eritrea: Half Christian, half Muslim Eastern coast: Eastern Islam & Hinterland Animist Conflict Sudan: Muslims in north vs non-Muslims in south

50 African music tradition
Slave trade  melding of African cultures with Amerindian and European ones eg. Rumba, jazz, bossa nova, the blues, rock & roll

51 Congo’s Authenticity Movement
Introduced by President Motutu Subsidies to musical groups Franco’s OK Jazz band: rumba + Congolese folk music Soukous: dance step & music style eg. Papa Wemba

52 Music as political conscience
Singer Fela Kuti was voice of political conscience for Nigerians struggling for democracy Lyrics critical of military government

53 Geopolitical Framework

54 Long duration of human settlement
Ethnic conflicts after the colonial era

55 Indigenous kingdoms Influenced by Egypt and Arabia
B.C Nubia (northern Sudan) A.D. 200 Axum (northern Ethiopia, Eritrea) The first Indigenous African states in the Sahel Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem-Bornu City-states in the Gulf of Guinea Ife/Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, Ashanti Later profit from the slave trade in the 16th, and 17th century

56 Early Sub-Saharan states and empires

57 European colonization
Failed/limited due to diseases until mid 1800s Portuguese in Angola and Mozambique Dutch in South Africa Quinine made colonization possible Scramble for Africa in the 1880s British seizure of Egypt (1882) Empire-building

58 Berlin Conference Gathering of 13 countries in 1884 in which Sub-Saharan Africa was carved up and traded around No Africans participated Borders drawn with disregard for African cultures

59 European colonization in 1913

60 Establishment of South Africa
Dutch settlement (1652~) in Cape Town Became Afrikaner or Boer Slowly expanded towards north and east Developed social system based on racism British seizure of Cape district (1806) Afrikaner migration ( ?) Afrikaner establishment of two republics (1850s) British incorporated the Zulu (1900)

61 Establishment of South Africa

62 Establishment of South Africa
Boer War ( ) British-Afrikaner tension over mineral wealth in Transvaal (South African Republic) The British annexed two republics to form the union of South Africa South Africa’s independence (1910) Afrikaner’s National Party gained control (1948) Introduced apartheid Construction of black homelands by ethnic group

63 Establishment of South Africa

64 Establishment of South Africa
Townships segregated neighborhoods for nonwhites, located on outskirts of cities Opposition to apartheid during 1960s ~ 1980s Free election (1994)  Elimination of Homelands

65 Establishment of South Africa

66 Decolonization and independence
Beginning in 1957, smooth transition Organization of African Unity (OAU) (1963) Continent-wide organization Mediate disputes between neighbors Former Portuguese colonies: Angola, Mozambique  armed resistance Socialist-oriented rebel movement during Cold War

67 Enduring political conflict
Lack of institutional framework for independent government; lack of higher education Difficult to establish cohesive states because of legacy of Berlin Conference European colonial powers have drawn boundaries without regard for cultural and political geographies

68 Enduring political conflict
Refugees People who flee their state because of a well-found fear of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, or political orientation 3 million Africans (2000) Internally displaced persons People who flee from conflict but still reside in their country of origin 13 million Africans (2000)

69 Ethnic conflicts Rwanda (1994) Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996)
Liberia ( ) Sierra Leone (2000) Somalia (early 1990s)

70 Secessionist movements
Republic of Katanga (1960), Congo State of Biafra (1967), Nigeria Eritrea (1993), Ethiopia Province of Equatoria, Sudan

71 Postcolonial conflicts

72 Big man politics Occurred when presidents refuse to let go of reigns of power Military governments, one-party states, and presidents-for-life are the norm Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia Corruption of political institutions Disproportionate spending on the military 1990s saw growth in multi-party states and free elections

73 Economic and Social Development


75 Negative economic growth

76 Roots of African poverty – environmental factors
Infertile soil Erratic patterns of rainfall Paucity of navigable river Virulence of tropical diseases

77 Roots of African poverty – historical and institutional factors
Slave trade  depopulation, flee into refuges Colonization little investment in infra., rather interested in natural extraction  Impedes internally dynamic economy Failed development policies economic nationalism  less competitive industries Agricultural and food policies low prices of crops  opted for subsistence agriculture Focus on export crops  failure to meet staple food needs Corruption: kleptocracy Kleptocracy: a state in which corruption is so institutionalized that politicians and government bureaucrats siphon off huge percentage of country’s wealth

78 Links to the world economy
Major export & import : E.U., U.S. Low connectivity But expansion of mobile telephone More aid than investment Little foreign investment  too poor and unstable p265

79 Debt relief program Given to countries that are determined to have “unsustainable” debt burdens States qualify for different levels of debt relief provided they present a poverty reduction strategy Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique… Look at map show in the link from the course web site


81 South Africa Largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
Well-developed, well-balanced industrial economy Healthy agricultural sector World’s mining superpowers Gold production Worst distributions of income in the world Look at the map shown in the link from the course website

82 Oil and mineral producers
Nigeria, Gabon, Cameron Republic of Congo Equatorial Guinea Mineral resources Diamond - Namibia, Botswana

83 Leaders of ECOWAS Nigeria Ivory Coast, Senegal Ghana
Second largest economy Oil money  urban growth Ivory Coast, Senegal Commercial centers Economic downturn in the 1980s Ghana Economic recovery in the 1990s Debt relief negotiation (2001)

84 East Africa Kenya Tanzania Good infrastructure by African standars
1 million foreign tourists Agricultural exports of coffee dominate economy Tanzania Built African form of socialism – Ujaama World’s largest per capital recipient of foreign aid

85 Poorest states Sahel Horn of Africa Conflict-afflicted states Etc.
Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad Horn of Africa Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia Conflict-afflicted states Burundi, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Etc. Malawi, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, and Zambia

86 Average Life expectancy 51, high mortality rate, illiteracy (note the difference between male and female), rather high female labor force participation


88 Low life expectancy High child mortality rate  paucity of health care
Extreme poverty Environmental hazards (drought) Environmental and infectious diseases (malaria, cholera, SIDS, and measles)

89 Women and development Invisible contributors to local and national economies Dominates informal sector which accounts for 30 to 50% of GDP

90 Status of women No social liabilities Discrimination
cf. South Asia, SW Asia, North Africa Discrimination Prevalence polygamy, practice of “bride-price”, denial of property inheritance Practice of female circumcision, or genital mutilation

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