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Sub-Saharan Africa. Introduction  Cultural complexity  Language, religion, ethnicity, colonialism  The world’s fastest growing region  45% of population.

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Presentation on theme: "Sub-Saharan Africa. Introduction  Cultural complexity  Language, religion, ethnicity, colonialism  The world’s fastest growing region  45% of population."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sub-Saharan Africa

2 Introduction  Cultural complexity  Language, religion, ethnicity, colonialism  The world’s fastest growing region  45% of population is younger than 15 years old  Low economic output  1% of global output with 11% population  Mounting debt  structural adjustment programs

3 Environmental Geography

4 Elevated landmass High Africa Low Africa Great Escarpment Great Rift Valley

5 Plateaus  Escarpment  Forms when plateau abruptly ends (eg. falls)  impedes river navigation  low connectivity in this region  Great Escarpment: refers to coastal escarpment in south  narrow coastal plane  few human settlement in the coast  Mountain range  Volcanic mountains in southern half of the Great Rift Valley (eg. Killimanjaro, Mount Kenya)  created in divergent plate boundary

6 Divergent plate boundary  In the Eastern Africa, this geological forces produce gash along the boundary (eg. Lake Nyasa, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria)  fertile soil, abundant water  dense settlement in eastern Africa Ridge Rift Valley The Rift Valley

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8 Watersheds  Congo River (or Zaire)  The Second largest river  Bndry. betw. Rep. of Congo and Demo. Rep. of Congo  Nile River  The Longest river  Lifeblood of Egypt, Sudan  Connects between North and Sub-Saharan Africa

9 Watersheds  Niger River  Critical source of water for the arid countries  Mali, Niger, Nigeria  Historic city – Tombouctou (11 th century)  Zambezi River  Major supplier of commercial energy  Kariba Res, Cabora Bassa Res.  Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique

10 Soils  Relatively infertile  can’t support intensive agriculture  Soil fertility explains patterns of settlement  Rift valley  Rwanda, Brundi, Ethiopia, Kenya  Nigeria

11 Climate Mostly tropical climates (Af, Aw, BSh, BWh) except for South Africa

12 Tropical forests (Af)  Warm to hot temperature; year-round precipitation  Relatively intact (cf. SE Asia, Latin America)  Low population  Oil exports  Political chaos

13 Savannas (Aw)  Wrapped around rain forest  Mixture of trees and tall grasses  Critical habitat for large fauna  Eg. Masai Mara Nat’l Park, Kenya

14 Deserts  Sahara Desert, Namib Desert, Kalahari Desert

15 Midlatitude climates  South Africa  Southwestern  Mediterranean climate (Csb)  wine production  Eastern coast  subtropical climate (Cfa)

16 Highland  Exhibits altitudinal zonation  Montane zones  Rift Valley zone  Drakensberg Range

17 Desertification in the Sahel  Sahel  Between Sahara Desert and Savanna southward  Transhumance  Movement of animals between wet-season and dry-season pasture  adequate precipitation is essential for livelihood  Drought ( )  Desert-like condition began to move south  Threaten the livelihoods of farmers and pastoralists

18 What causes the Sahelian drought?  Human-induced environmental degradation  Expansion of agriculture   loss of natural vegetation, declines in soil fertility  eg. peanuts production during the French colonial rule  Overgrazing  Expansion of animal production after WWII  eg. wells digging to supply water  Climatic fluctuation

19 Deforestation  Often occurs in Savanna rather than rain forest  shortage of biofuel; Green Belt Movement

20 Deforestation  Central Africa’s Ituri rain forest  Deforested for logging  Madagascar’s eastern rain forest  endangered biodiversity Lemur

21 Wildlife conservation  Diseases kept people and livestock out of the areas  Survival of wildlife  Wildlife reserves are in  East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania)  Southern Africa (Zimbabwe)  Poaching (eg. ivory trade) is a problem

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23 Population and Settlement

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26  Overall, not densely populated  Similar to that of U.S.  Young population, large families   population growth   family planning policies in the 1980s  High child mortality, low life expectancy   low access to basic health services

27 Population density  Crude population density  Population / area  Physiological density  # people per unit of arable land  Agricultural density  # farmers per unit of arable land Even though Sub- Saharan Africa has low crude population density, it has high agricultural density

28 Family size Large families are encouraged by  Rural lifestyle  Seen as a source of labor, and social security  Ethnic rivalries  More number is affiliated with high political influence  High child mortality rates  Limited education to women

29 Family size Recently growth rate has weaken due to  Government policies  Urbanization  AIDS

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32 Population concentration  West Africa, Highland East Africa  Fertile soil, permanent agriculture  Eastern half of South Africa  Urbanized economy based on mining  Forced relocation of black South Africans into eastern homelands

33 Subsistence crops  Poor tropical soils  shifting cultivation (or swidden)  can’t support high population density  Staple crops (millet, sorghum, corn, and tubers) all over the region  Yam in West Africa (eg. Ibo: southeastern Nigeria)  Irrigated rice in West Africa, and Madagascar

34 Plantation crops  Coffee: Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Brundi, Tanzania  Peanuts: Sahel  Cotton: Sudan, Central African Republic  Cocoa: Ghana, Ivory Coast  Rubber: Liberia  Palm oil: Nigeria

35 Herding and livestock  Extremely important in semiarid zones  Camel, goats in Sahara; cow father south of Sahara  Symbiotic relationships with neighboring farmers  Manure of stocks can fertilize the soil; exchanged for grain  But often pastoralists independent of agriculture (eg. Masai)  Difficult environment for raising livestock because of infestation of tsetse flies (eg. Central Africa)

36 Historic cities  Axum, Ethiopia (1 st century)  Capital of ancient empire  Tombouctou, Gao in the Sahel (11 th century)  Trans-Saharan trader centers  Zanzibar(Tanzania), Mombasar(Kenya) (12 th century)  established by Arab traders  Rooted in Swahili language

37 West African cities  Ibadan, Nigeria – settled by Yoruba (12 th century)  Lagos, Nigeria – 12 million, Yoruba Lagos

38  Accra, Ghana – settled by Ga (16 th century)  Colonial administrative center in the late 1800s  Division along income lines

39 South African cities  Colonial origin unlike that of west Africa  eg. Lusaka (Zambia), Harare(Zimbabwe), and metropolitan areas in South Africa  rich minerals  South Africa  eg. Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town  Reflects the legacy of apartheid

40 Racial segregation in Cape Town

41 Cultural Coherence and Diversity

42  No institutionalized form of religion  No widespread unified language  Many of African are multilingual  Lacks a history of widespread political union  Common history of slavery and colonialism

43 African language groups  Can be divided into two types  (1) Associated with other parts of the world  Afro-Asiatic (North Africa, Ethiopia, Somali)  Islam  Austronesian (Madacascar)  indonesian settlement  Indo-European (French, English, Afrikaans)  colonialism  (2) Unique to the region  Nilo-Saharan (Southern Sudan, Sahel)  Khoisan (Kalahari)  Niger-Congo  Bantu migrationBantu migration

44 Bantu Migration

45 Swahili is the most widely spoken Sub-Saharan language

46 Religion  Combine animist practices and ideas with their observances of Christianity and Islam

47 Introduction of Christianity  A.D. 200 ~  Northern Ethiopia: Coptic form of Christianity  1600s ~  South Africa: European settlers and missionaries (1600s)  Dutch settlers  Mid 1800s ~  Former British colony – Protestant Christianity  Former French, Belgian, Portuguese colony – Catholicism  U.S. – Pentecostal, Evangelical, Mormon

48 Introduction of Islam  1000 years ago introduced to Sahel from North Africa  Later, southward spread from Sahel

49 Interaction between religious traditions  Unlike other regions, religion is not a source of political conflict in the Sub-Saharan Africa with the exception of Sudan  Coexistence  Nigeria: Hausa (north) & Igbo, Yoruba (south)  Eritrea: Half Christian, half Muslim  Eastern coast: Eastern Islam & Hinterland Animist  Conflict  Sudan: Muslims in north vs non-Muslims in south

50 African music tradition  Slave trade  melding of African cultures with Amerindian and European ones  eg. Rumba, jazz, bossa nova, the blues, rock & roll

51 Congo’s Authenticity Movement  Introduced by President Motutu  Subsidies to musical groups  Franco’s OK Jazz band: rumba + Congolese folk music  Soukous: dance step & music style  eg. Papa WembaPapa Wemba

52 Music as political conscience  Singer Fela Kuti was voice of political conscience for Nigerians struggling for democracyFela Kuti  Lyrics critical of military government

53 Geopolitical Framework

54  Long duration of human settlement  Ethnic conflicts after the colonial era

55 Indigenous kingdoms  Influenced by Egypt and Arabia  B.C Nubia (northern Sudan)  A.D. 200 Axum (northern Ethiopia, Eritrea)  The first Indigenous African states in the Sahel  Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem-Bornu  City-states in the Gulf of Guinea  Ife/Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, Ashanti  Later profit from the slave trade in the 16 th, and 17 th century

56 Early Sub-Saharan states and empires

57 European colonization  Failed/limited due to diseases until mid 1800s  Portuguese in Angola and Mozambique  Dutch in South Africa  Quinine made colonization possible  Scramble for Africa in the 1880s  British seizure of Egypt (1882)  Empire-building

58 Berlin Conference  Gathering of 13 countries in 1884 in which Sub- Saharan Africa was carved up and traded around  No Africans participated  Borders drawn with disregard for African cultures

59 European colonization in 1913

60 Establishment of South Africa  Dutch settlement (1652~) in Cape Town  Became Afrikaner or Boer  Slowly expanded towards north and east  Developed social system based on racism  British seizure of Cape district (1806)  Afrikaner migration ( ?)  Afrikaner establishment of two republics (1850s)  British incorporated the Zulu (1900)

61 Establishment of South Africa

62  Boer War ( )  British-Afrikaner tension over mineral wealth in Transvaal (South African Republic)  The British annexed two republics to form the union of South Africa  South Africa’s independence (1910)  Afrikaner’s National Party gained control (1948)  Introduced apartheid  Construction of black homelands by ethnic group

63 Establishment of South Africa

64  Townships  segregated neighborhoods for nonwhites, located on outskirts of cities  Opposition to apartheid during 1960s ~ 1980s  Free election (1994)  Elimination of Homelands

65 Establishment of South Africa

66 Decolonization and independence  Beginning in 1957, smooth transition  Organization of African Unity (OAU) (1963)  Continent-wide organization  Mediate disputes between neighbors  Former Portuguese colonies: Angola, Mozambique   armed resistance  Socialist-oriented rebel movement during Cold War

67 Enduring political conflict  Lack of institutional framework for independent government; lack of higher education  Difficult to establish cohesive states because of legacy of Berlin Conference  European colonial powers have drawn boundaries without regard for cultural and political geographies

68 Enduring political conflict  Refugees  People who flee their state because of a well-found fear of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, or political orientation  3 million Africans (2000)  Internally displaced persons  People who flee from conflict but still reside in their country of origin  13 million Africans (2000)

69 Ethnic conflicts  Rwanda (1994)  Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996)  Liberia ( )  Sierra Leone (2000)  Somalia (early 1990s)

70 Secessionist movements  Republic of Katanga (1960), Congo  State of Biafra (1967), Nigeria  Eritrea (1993), Ethiopia  Province of Equatoria, Sudan

71 Postcolonial conflicts

72 Big man politics  Occurred when presidents refuse to let go of reigns of power  Military governments, one-party states, and presidents- for-life are the norm  Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia  Corruption of political institutions  Disproportionate spending on the military  1990s saw growth in multi-party states and free elections

73 Economic and Social Development

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75 Negative economic growth

76 Roots of African poverty – environmental factors  Infertile soil  Erratic patterns of rainfall  Paucity of navigable river  Virulence of tropical diseases

77 Roots of African poverty – historical and institutional factors  Slave trade  depopulation, flee into refuges  Colonization  little investment in infra., rather interested in natural extraction  Impedes internally dynamic economy  Failed development policies  economic nationalism  less competitive industries  Agricultural and food policies  low prices of crops  opted for subsistence agriculture  Focus on export crops  failure to meet staple food needs  Corruption: kleptocracy

78 Links to the world economy  Major export & import : E.U., U.S.  Low connectivity  But expansion of mobile telephone  More aid than investment  Little foreign investment  too poor and unstable

79 Debt relief program  Given to countries that are determined to have “unsustainable” debt burdens  States qualify for different levels of debt relief provided they present a poverty reduction strategy  Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique…

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81 South Africa  Largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa  Well-developed, well-balanced industrial economy  Healthy agricultural sector  World’s mining superpowers  Gold production  Worst distributions of income in the world

82 Oil and mineral producers  Oil  Nigeria, Gabon, Cameron  Republic of Congo  Equatorial Guinea  Mineral resources  Diamond - Namibia, Botswana

83 Leaders of ECOWAS  Nigeria  Second largest economy  Oil money  urban growth  Ivory Coast, Senegal  Commercial centers  Economic downturn in the 1980s  Ghana  Economic recovery in the 1990s  Debt relief negotiation (2001)

84 East Africa  Kenya  Good infrastructure by African standars  1 million foreign tourists  Agricultural exports of coffee dominate economy  Tanzania  Built African form of socialism – Ujaama  World’s largest per capital recipient of foreign aid

85 Poorest states  Sahel  Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad  Horn of Africa  Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia  Conflict-afflicted states  Burundi, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo  Etc.  Malawi, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, and Zambia

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88 Low life expectancy  High child mortality rate  paucity of health care  Extreme poverty  Environmental hazards (drought)  Environmental and infectious diseases (malaria, cholera, SIDS, and measles)

89 Women and development  Invisible contributors to local and national economies  Dominates informal sector which accounts for 30 to 50% of GDP

90 Status of women  No social liabilities  cf. South Asia, SW Asia, North Africa  Discrimination  Prevalence polygamy, practice of “bride-price”, denial of property inheritance  Practice of female circumcision, or genital mutilation


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