Presentation on theme: "Unit #8: After the Cold War and New Nations Courtesy of: Ayo Jones Pages: (736-748) and (751-752) content/2009/02/usa-ussr.gif."— Presentation transcript:
Unit #8: After the Cold War and New Nations Courtesy of: Ayo Jones Pages: (736-748) and (751-752) http://sjeltur.nl/wp- content/2009/02/usa-ussr.gif
Africa Overview “Independent” since 1922. Rich in resources. Egypt gained total power over the Suez Canal in 1956. Ghana became the first black African country to win its independence from Britain. Most of the French colonies gained independence in 1960. Non- aligned nation- A newly independent nation that chose not to align itself with either the USA and USSR in the Cold War. After gaining independence many of the countries were unstable. http://www.twolia.com/blogs/zobo xrox/files/2009/04/africa.jpg
Egypt -1952 Egyptian army officers, overthrew the government, by forcing King Farouk to abdicate. -1956, British withdrew troops from Suez Canal, then Egypt nationalized the water way. -Israel, which was partaking in guerrilla warfare, worked with Britain and France to Retake the canal, and change governing policies. -Egyptian leader Nasser became a popular and respected Arab leader because he fought the British army and succeeded. -For assistance he looked toward the Soviet Union, to build the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River. -Very important hydroelectric innovation, worked to preserve the architecture. -Nasser died in 1970, Anwar Sadat followed him, and expelled all of the Soviet advisers. - This would cause issues for both the 1 st and the 2 nd world countries. -Sadat was assassinated, Hosni Mubarak followed him, and kept distance from the Soviet Union, and stayed in good acquaintance with the U.S. http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/umrcour ses/ge342/Suez%20Canal%20today.jpg
Congo “Congo Crisis”, in 1960 showed the lingering existence of the Cold War Super power. Congo is rich with resources, such as, diamonds, copper, coffee crude oil. King Leopold II of Belgium was the first to make Congo its colony. Small group of educated Congolese, demanded national and political rights, resulted in elections for local self government. Patrice Lumumba was a candidate that provided national and militaristic leadership. Anti government rioting began in January of1959. By January of 1960, at the Round Table Conference in Brussels, Belgium quickly decided that Congo would be independent on June 30 th 1960. Prime minister Lumumba loathed the Belgians, an gave a speech stating it quite eloquently. The president of Congo Kasavubu, shortly after independence dismissed Lumumba and Lumumba did the same to Kasavubu. They both went to the united nations for assistance, the UN didn’t help so Lumumba called the USSR, making Congo a part of a bigger fight. Lumumba was murdered. Disputes with in the country continued. Congo is a great example of a developing country getting in the middle of the remains of the Cold War, this didn’t result well for Congo. http://www.diasporando.net/section/wp - content/uploads/2009/08/lumbumba.jpg
Algeria -One Million French settlers won independence in 1962. After a long struggle that almost caused France a civil war. -Had the largest amount of North Africans, about 12% of the population. -Algeria was its own country with fair representation. -In 1940’s, reformist tried to created a nationalist, Arab- Islamic Algeria. -The Arab population was against foreign rule/involvement. -1950’s Algerian revolution against French rule, led by the National Liberation Front. -Met by French repression. -Violence spread everywhere. -General Charles de Gaulle helped settle down the violence, and took over as president. -He granted Algeria independence. This was after 300,000 Algerians and 20,00o Frenchmen were killed. -Pretty much all of the European residents in Algeria left. -The amount of education in the community was very small. -Went into a period of guerilla warfare. Tried to start a centralized government. -Promoted Industrialization. -Natural gas resources were found. -Birth rate was high, many Algerians emigrated to France in search of jobs. “Nationalist Party in Algeria“ http://www.historycentral.com/Mideast/Al geriaind.gif
Mozambique, Angola and Guinea Portugal held all of these places as colonies. Mozambique and Angola held a coup in Portugal 1974. Lead by dictators. Guinea was governed harshly and had repressive labor policies. – Forced 65,000 to 100,000 to travel and work in the mines in South Africa. Each person had to hold their identification passbook at all times. Press was censored. Police abused their power. Portugal believed that holding African colonies, was would make them strong. They called theses areas that they controlled “provinces”. In 1961 revolts broke out in all three colonies. Portugal fought the freedom fighters with the help of the white South Africa. USSR and Cuba aided the freedom fighters in their cause. In 1974 a military coup captured the government of Portugal and granted independence. All of the newly independent countries had different ideas to rule their governments by. http://unimaps.com/flags-africa/mozambique-flag.gif http://unimaps.com/flags-africa/angola-flag.gif
Client States and Proxy Wars After independence many states were unstable, impoverished and challenged by social diversity. The two major powers of USA and the USSR, took over smaller, usually third world countries, the resources. They also supported their ideas such as Democracy and Communism.
Latin America Fidel Castro began an revolution that overthrew the dictator Fulgencio Batista. He was closely allied with the USSR so the US did not like them. Americans feared Castro. He worked cooperatively with other countries in the southern hemisphere. Central American countries that had always been free, remained poor and divided, along with being dependent on the U.S Most of these countries in Latin America were the definition of “third world” country.
Nicaragua To gain control of Nicaragua, the U.S helped start up some revolts in 1909, they used American Marines to support the cause. 1933 Nicaraguan National Guard joined the Americans. Nicaraguan leader, Augusto Cesar Sandino reject the Americans and fought them using guerilla warfare. – He was eventually murdered by a team member that double crossed him. Anastasio Somoza Garcia, was in the group against them, and became the president, then made the government into a dynasty. He was not pleased with the living conditions of the people.Revolutionary movement by Sandista Front Liberation By the time this new revolutionary group came to power, 50,000 people were killed in guerilla war fare. Many people died after the long years of civil war. They now have a well set up democracy and have a good relationship with America.
Guatemala and Panama Low economic power Attacked by Honduras Leader was Colonel Jacobi Arbenz He supported technological innovation of Nicaragua. He wanted a power plant. They were the main producers of bananas He tried to form a strong army with weapons from Poland. Then his government fell. The French had permission from Columbia to build the panama canal. It was in the most northern part of the country. The project failed and it went up for sale. President Roosevelt encouraged a small scale revolt. After the revolt they were called an independent country. They always were under the US Jimmy Carter agreed to let the Panama Canal be under their role in 2000. The transfer took place on December 31, 1999
Terrorism and the Pursuit of Peace Guerilla warfare. Remained cold after the Cold War. The goal of terrorism is to put fear into everyone. Both Nazi Germany and Communist Russia Terrorized their people.