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International Rivalry in South Africa! By Sophie and Amy.

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1 International Rivalry in South Africa! By Sophie and Amy

2 International Rivalry Extensive colonial rivalry between European powers in South Arica, countries competing with each other, “new imperialism” of the 1880s European countries have the time to expand in Africa, for example Austria and Russia not in conflict over the Balkans any more, Germany no longer worried about near eastern crisis, France now free to go to Africa, Countries wanting to colonise and occupy Africa as they feel that the size of their empire shows power D. Thomson “The naked power politics of the new colonialism were the projection, or to an overseas screen, of the new inter-state frictions and rivalries of Europe” Max Weber (1894) “…clearly approaching the point where power alone will decide each nation’s share in the economic control of the earth”

3 Germany and South Africa Between 1882 and 1887 Bismarck felt confident that Germany’s position in Europe was secure, and so he decided that this was a good opportunity for colonial ventures in Africa He also thought that having a colonial conflict with Britain could help him politically and in diplomatic affairs as the colonial conflict also improved Franco-German relations as he had French support against Britain Bismarck was in negotiations with Britain, but Britain continued to attempt to delay discussions about land in Africa, Bismarck perceived this as Britain been arrogant and so he simply claimed South West Africa. This was significant as before this South Africa was almost exclusively British dominated Germany also supported the Transvaal, for example they assisted in forming the national bank of the south African republic in 1894 and supplied the Boers with Krupps guns (German guns) just before the Boer war=looked like they were supplying Britain’s enemy, and Germany also raised almost £2 million so the Transvaal could improve its defences. AJP Taylor “the deliberate provocative claim to ownerless lands in which the German government had hitherto shown no interest” Ferry “Bismarck also had a grievance against Britain in south west Africa which led him to retaliate against what he regarded as British arrogance against German interests there.”

4 France and South Africa France did not really have any lands in South Africa, yet still seemed to be involved, mostly maintaining the anti-British front This could have been motivated by France feeling bitter after the events in Egypt and the Sudan, where they felt they had been excluded from Egypt when the British ended “dual control” after the events in Alexandria, while the Fashoda incident had further increased France’s unhappiness with Britain Could have also been because France wanted to gain colonies for national pride Chamberlain “It is unlikely that the British government would have regarded the new ambitions of the Niger traders very sympathetically but for the sudden challenge from France in the area” Robinson and Gallagher “the French loosed their pro-consuls against exposed British interests in unclaimed Africa”

5 Portugal and South Africa Portugal were involved in South Africa, as they had Mozambique and Angola They then tried to expand their lands in south Africa, but this was stopped at the Berlin Conference, but Portugal then decided to get round this by signing treaties with Germany and France in 1886, creating something called the rose coloured map, basically claiming land that connected Mozambique and Angola, so they had land stretching from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean Britain then issued an Ultimatum in 1890, where Salisbury demanded the withdrawal of the Portuguese from Mashonaland and Matabeleland.

6 Britain and international rivalry in South Africa In 1885 Britain declare protectorate over Bechuanaland, which could have been motivated by Germany claiming South West Africa, stopping Germany claim this area of land, while also creating a buffer between German South West Africa and the Transvaal. Forming southern Rhodesia after claiming Mashonaland and Matabeleland, which stops Germany, Portugal and the Boers from claiming the land first, and if you look on the map it seems that Britain was beginning to surround the Transvaal, again possibly to stop others getting the land. Ignoring Portugal’s claims and allowing Rhodes’ South Africa Company to create northern Rhodesia Ferry “ The creation of a Franco-German front against Britain’s attempts to exclude them from the Congo introduced great power diplomacy into the situation of Africa”

7 Why International Rivalry? Gold found in the Transvaal increased other countries interests in South Africa, and so Britain was defending its dominance and defending British supremacy in southern Africa The discovery of gold in the Transvaal can be seen to be what partly motivated international rivalry: There was a transfer in power from Britain’s Cape Colony to the Boers in the Transvaal, which Britain perceived as undermining their supremacy, as the balance of power shifted and the Transvaal was in a position to become the dominant state. To solve this, Britain expanded north from the Cape to claim Bechuanaland and form southern and northern Rhodesia, in the hope of finding gold or diamonds, and to stop other countries gaining this land, so Britain could be the most powerful in South Africa: Rhodes even said that “if we get Mashonaland we shall get the balance of Africa” Britain feeling under pressure from old rivals like France and Russia but now newer challenges such as Germany, so defending their dominance in southern Africa became harder

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