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What was the nature of the civil society resistance after the 1960s?

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Presentation on theme: "What was the nature of the civil society resistance after the 1960s?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What was the nature of the civil society resistance after the 1960s?
TOPIC 4 Civil Resistance in South Africa 1970s to 1980s What was the nature of the civil society resistance after the 1960s?

2 The challenge of Black Consciousness to the Apartheid state
The nature and aims of Black Consciousness; The role of Steve Biko; Black Consciousness Movement (BCM); BC and challenges posed to the state; The 1976 Soweto Uprising; The legacy of Black Consciousness on South African politics.

3 The crisis of Apartheid in the 1980s
Government attempts to reform Apartheid Contradictions of Apartheid emerge – intensification of labour unrest. Botha introduced the policy of ‘Total Strategy’ of repression and reform. The 1982 Urban Bantu Authorities Act attempted to give more power to local councillors in the townships. The Tricameral system gave limited representation to South Africans that were classified as 'Coloured' and 'Indian' but excluded the majority African population.

4 A cartoon by Bob Connolly in the mid-1980s commenting on the political reforms introduced by PW Botha.

5 Internal resistance to reforms
Growing power of the Trade Union Movement from 1973 Black South African workers were denied any legal rights in the work place before 1979. Black trade unionism was suppressed and marginalised by the apartheid state. By the 1970s, African trade unionism began to emerge because of high food prices, low wages coupled with increased unemployment.

6 Labour’s ‘Rolling Mass Action’
Roles and impact of FOSATU; CUSA and COSATU in worker struggles.

7 Response to Botha’s ‘reforms’
Labour and civil society movements embarked on ‘rolling mass action’. Formation and roles of the UDF, MDM, ECC in making the country ungovernable.

8 International Response: International Anti-Apartheid Movements (AAM)
AAM in Britain and Ireland AAM campaigned to end Apartheid by means of boycotts and isolating South Africa from the international community. AAM was founded in Ireland in 1964, led by Kader Asmal. Embarked on sports, cultural, economic and academic boycotts as well as supporting liberation organisations like the ANC.

9 Support for the anti-Apartheid struggle in Africa
In 1970 Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe etc. met to co-ordinate their support for the liberation movements in exile. Most of the economies of the frontline states were dependant on South Africa for imports/exports/migrant labour- it became difficult for them to impose sanctions and isolate South Africa.

10 The beginning of the end
The South African economy was in trouble because of the imposition of international sanctions Combination of disinvestment, boycotts and internal mass resistance played a significant role in the eventual demise of the Apartheid regime.

11 Activity 4.8: Assessment Refer to the information provided in the Resource Pack: Formulate an essay question, Prepare a marking guideline and Elaborate on the necessary skills required for a good essay. Report Back and discussion

12 Thank you!

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