Presentation on theme: "FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, A STRANGER TO URBAN POLICY AND PLANNING? Prof.dr. Han Wiskerke Foodscapes research group Amsterdam Academy of Architecture Wageningen."— Presentation transcript:
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, A STRANGER TO URBAN POLICY AND PLANNING? Prof.dr. Han Wiskerke Foodscapes research group Amsterdam Academy of Architecture Wageningen University – Rural Sociology Group Editor-in-Chief of SITOPOLIS – Journal of Urban Agriculture & Regional Food Systems
PhD projects 3 PhD CandidateProject title Rose OmariTransformation of food production in Ghana: The emergence of global fast food chains Joyce HaleegoahTransformation of food production in Ghana: Analysis of local food networks Nashiru SulemanaThe embeddedness challenge and Home-Grown School Feeding Programmes: the case of local food networks and the Ghana School Feeding Programme. Georgina VillarrealSustainability in food supply chains: a co-evolutionary perspective Cheron ConstanceRadical Food: an examination of food retailing in the alternative food movement in the US and Europe and the tensions of fostering food democracy in capitalist structures Agnese CretellaUrban food strategies: comparing cities, policies and political discourses Camilo LozanoFood security and public procurement: reforming school meals through state action in Brazil Thais BassinelloDynamics and robustness of Home-Grown School Feeding in Sub-Saharan Africa: policy implications of a comparative case study of Uganda, Mozambique and Ghana Sunny MorrisonThe political economy of urban food provisioning Lani TrenouthThe ‘turn to alterity’ in food consumption as a response to food system uncertainty – examples from Latvia, Canada and Italy Olga GromashevaConsumers as drivers of innovation in new food networks Leo DvortsinThe role of new food enterprises in reshaping food supply chains Esther VeenThe effects of urban agriculture on social networks and dietary patterns Simona D’AmicoExploring interactions in alternative food networks in Calabria Marc WegerifFood and the city: a qualitative analysis of food provisioning in Dar es Salaam Shiela ChickuloA sociological analysis of people and food movement in a spontaneous economy in Zimbabwe
Food and Agricultural Policies 4 First national post-war food and agricultural policies in Europe as well as initial Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) incorporated several social and ethical objectives with regard to food: No more hunger (self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs) Affordability of food (fair price for consumers) Social equity in urban-rural relations (living standards / quality of life of farmers / farm workers and their families equal to that of people with other (urban) occupations)
Food and Agricultural Policies 6 Modernisation of agriculture and industrialisation of the food supply chain gradually implied that the economic profitability of the agro-industrial complex became the main objective at the expense of the aforementioned social and ethical objectives Together with the EU’s budgetary problems and the rise of neo-liberalism this resulted in a further commoditisation of food. Food and agricultural policy is increasingly about not interfering in food provisioning, but about creating the conditions for a global ‘free’ food commodity market
Food and Agricultural Policies 7 Withdrawal of the state from food market and price policy Role of the state in thematic issues: Agri-environmental policies Animal welfare policies Food hygiene and safety policies (consumer protection) Broader rural development objectives (2 nd CAP pillar) Recent developments: More attention for peri-urban areas in RD policies Preservation of public goods, employment, promotion of healthy diets
The invisibility of food in urban policies 8 Food is often not part of the urban public domain: Urban policymakers (and urban dwellers) are unaware of the ecological footprint of the technologies that mechanized farming, transportation, refrigeration, and food processing. The historic process of urbanization resulting in a persistent dichotomy in public policy between urban and rural policy (food = agriculture = rural policy). Food is taken for granted (especially in Western countries) While the system of provisioning urban places with food has been radically restructured in the 20 th century, the “thereness” of food in cities for the majority of urban residents has not changed (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 1999).
The urban-rural policy divide 9 The rural-urban policy divide is responsible for three shortcomings in food policy and planning: 1. Food provisioning is confined to agricultural and rural development policies, missing the fact that the city is the space, place and scale where demand is greatest for food products 2. Food security failure is seen as a production failure instead of an availability, accessibility, affordability and adequacy failure, constraining policy interventions in the realm of food security 3. It has promoted the view of food policy as a non-urban strategy, neglecting the (potential) role of cities as food system innovators
The urban significance of food 11 “The absence of food on the urban agenda means that the varied and complex ways that food issues are embedded in our lives are not well understood by city residents. The same holds true for most urban policy officials who fail to comprehend the importance of the urban food system for the quality of urban life. In fact, food is very much an urban issue.” (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 1999)
Urban policy and planning 12 Emerging food-related urban challenges: Rising health care costs (unhealthy eating & sedentary behaviour) Climate change mitigation (urban heat islands, energy (less fossil fuel, more renewable), storm water containment) Quality of living environment (e.g. urban green; social cohesion) Employment (urban food economy) & social welfare (socio- economic differences in access to food)
Cities as food system innovators 17 Increasingly cities understand that food is an important urban issue and consequently develop different food- related action fields (such as public procurement of food, urban production or educational projects) and gradually embrace more dimensions and activities. An Urban Food Strategy is a process consisting of how a city envisions change in its food system, and how it strives towards this change. Aim is to place food on the urban agenda, capitalizing on efforts made by existing actors and creating synergistic effects by linking different stakeholder groups (civil society groups, businesses, policymakers).
Cities as food system innovators 18 Attempt to achieve sustainability impacts and societal benefits in the following thematic fields: Health and wellbeing (e.g. improve public health as a whole, increase the welfare of society at large); Environment (reduce negative environmental impacts of the food system); Economy and community development (support a vibrant local green economy); Social and cultural aspects (support resilient, close-knit communities, food-friendly neighbourhoods). Wider societal benefits include food security/social justice, learning and empowerment, and strengthening of urban-rural linkages
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, A STRANGER TO URBAN POLICY AND PLANNING? Questions? Comments?