Presentation on theme: "DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA II: VIOLENT STRUGGLES 1. Nigeria: Britain grants independence in 1960, but bloody civil war erupts in 1967 (Springhall, 122-28)."— Presentation transcript:
DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA II: VIOLENT STRUGGLES 1. Nigeria: Britain grants independence in 1960, but bloody civil war erupts in 1967 (Springhall, 122-28). 2. Congo: Belgium grants independence in 1960 but engineers the secession of mineral-rich Katanga Province (Springhall, 135-39). 3. Kenya: The British defeat the Mau Mau insurgency in 1956 but grant independence to Jomo Kenyatta in 1963 (Springhall, 157-66). 4. Algeria: National Liberation Front launches uprising in 1954, gaining independence in 1962 after perhaps one million deaths (Springhall, 147-56).
Starving children in Biafra, 1970: Over one million people died in this civil war
The Belgian Congo in 1896: The capital was named after Henry Stanley; oil- rich Katanga Province lies in the far south….
Moise Tshombé and UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld meet at Elizabethville Airport, August 15, 1960
Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, after his arrest by mutinous soldiers in Leopoldville on December 3, 1960
Those soldiers sent Lumumba to Katanga, where Tshombe ordered his death by firing squad on January 17, 1961.
A wounded UN Peacekeeper in the Congolese Civil War, January 1961. The UN ended Katanga’s secession by 1963.
General Mobutu Sese Seko ruled “Zaire” from 1965 to 1997
Map of Kenya, which became a British colony in 1890
Major ethnic groups of Kenya: Kikuyu 23% Luhya 14% Luo 13% Kalenjin 11% Kamba 10% Kisii 6% Meru 5% Other African 17% European & Asian 1%
A Mau Mau insurgent band with crude rifles, 1952/53, and a British cartoon from 1952
Jomo Kenyatta, sworn in as Prime Minister of Kenya, June 1963
Sir Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet reached a secret agreement with David ben-Gurion in October 1956 to bring Nasser down Mollet had just sent another 300,000 troops to Algeria
FRANCE CONQUERED ALGERIA FROM 1829 TO 1892 The 3 rd Republic integrated it into metropolitan France, but suffrage was limited to the 1 million European settlers. After 1945 France allowed the 8 million Muslims to elect an equal number of delegates.
The National Liberation Front rebelled in November 1954, but all French parties replied, ici, c’est la France! The grant of independence to Morocco and Tunisia in 1956 fueled the rebellion.
With 500,000 troops the French conquered most rural strongholds of the FLN in 1956
The Battle of Algiers began in June 1956, when the FLN declared that 100 Frenchmen would be killed for every comrade executed; 49 white men were shot at random in the next 4 days, and bombs began to explode….
French paratroopers take charge of urban policing during the “Battle of Algiers,” January 1957. Torture was authorized.
Rumors that the politicians in Paris planned to surrender caused a military coup in Algiers and threats to invade the mainland in May 1958. The party leaders appealed to Charles de Gaulle to restore state authority. Here the paratrooper commander in Algeria, General Massu, presides over Marianne’s wedding
Charles de Gaulle in Algiers, 1959: The colons cheered his supposed will to resist majority rule…
The secularist FLN leaders Ahmed ben Bella (left) and Houari Boumedienne in Algiers, September 1962
Africa as of 1964, decolonized except for Angola, Mozambique, South Africa, and Rhodesia
POSSIBLE LESSONS? UN “Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries” (1960): “Lack of preparedness” is never an excuse to deny independence. Founding charter of the Organization of African Unity (1963): All member states are obliged to respect the “territorial integrity” of all other members, i.e., never to question existing borders, and to respect the principle of noninterference in the domestic affairs of another member state.