Presentation on theme: "THEME 2: Alternative Models of Economic Diversification"— Presentation transcript:
1THEME 2: Alternative Models of Economic Diversification Special Economic Zones models for growth:Science Technology Parks and Research ParksBudzanani Tacheba (PhD)“Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower”Steve Jobs (RIP), Founder and CEO, APPLE Inc.
4National Policy Guidance The Revised National RSTI (2012)Policy VisionBotswana will become a globally competitive nation with technology development, innovation and knowledge driven socio-economic growth.Vision-2016: P-2 |Botswana will be a productive and innovative nation
5Competitiveness Indicators You cant Manage what you don’t Measure!
6Global Competitiveness Indicators Global Competitiveness Index –a competitiveness index initially based on Michael Porters Business Competitiveness Index. The index measures among others innovation inputs (government and fiscal policies, education and innovation environments) and outputs (patents, technology transfer, R&D, business process innovation etc…).Global Innovation Index –is published annually since 2013 by a partnership of three organisations, Cornell University, INSEAD graduate business school and World Intellectual Property Rights. The indicator ranks economies policies supporting an innovative environment and the actual innovation outputsInternational Innovation Index – focussing on counties’ level of innovation two US based entities Boston Consulting Group and National Association of ManufacturersThe name INSEAD was originally an acronym for the French "Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires" or European Institute of Business Administration.Cornell University (/kɔrˈnɛl/ kor-nel) is an American private Ivy League and federal land-grant research university located in Ithaca,New York.Global Competitiveness ReportThe report "assesses the ability of countries to provide high levels of prosperity to their citizens. This in turn depends on how productively a country uses available resources. Therefore, the Global Competitiveness Index measures the set of institutions, policies, and factors that set the sustainable current and medium-term levels of economic prosperity."There are twelve pillars of competitiveness. These are: 1. institutions 2. appropriate infrastructure 3. a stable macroeconomic framework 4. good health and primary education 5. higher education and training 6. efficient goods markets 7. efficient labor markets 8. developed financial markets 9. the ability to harness the benefits of existing technologies 10. and its market size, both domestic and international 11. by producing new and different goods using the most sophisticated production processes 12. innovationChapter 1 of the publication presents the underlying conceptual framework of the publication and the ranking results, with special attention to the income group and regional classifications.The Global Innovation Index is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices.The Innovation Efficiency Ratio is the ratio of the Output Sub-Index over the Input Sub-Index.The Innovation Input Sub-Index is the simple average of the first five pillar scores.The Innovation Output Sub-Index is the simple average of the last two pillar scores.Pillars:Institutions,Human capital and research,Infrastructure,Market sophistication,Business sophistication,Knowledge and technology outputs, andCreative outputs.International Innovation IndexThe International Innovation Index is part of a large research study that looked at both the business outcomes of innovation and government's ability to encourage and support innovation through public policy. The study comprised a survey of more than 1,000 senior executives from NAM member companies across all industries; in-depth interviews with 30 of the executives; and a comparison of the "innovation friendliness" of 110 countries and all 50 U.S. states. The findings are published in the report, "The Innovation Imperative in Manufacturing: How the United States Can Restore Its Edge."The report discusses not only country performance but also what companies are doing and should be doing to spur innovation. It looks at new policy indicators for innovation, including tax incentives and policies for immigration,education and intellectual property.
7Botswana Source: World Economic Forum Report 2013 - 2014 Population (millions)GDP (US$ billions) …17.6GDP per capita (US$) …………9.398GDP (PPP) as share (%) of world total …0.04GCI ……….4.1GCI (out of 144) …………79………4.1GCI (Out of 142)……… ………………...80……..4.0Source: World Economic Forum Report
13Cluster Development Concept Clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers, and associated institutions in a particular field that are present in a nation or region.Clusters arise because they increase the productivity with which companies can compete. The development and upgrading of clusters is an important agenda for governments, companies, and other institutions.Cluster development initiatives are an important new direction in economic policy, building on earlier effortsSource: Michael E Porter, 2008
14Clustering, Innovation and Competitiveness Source Michael Porter; 2008
17Cluster Development Concept Sector focusTechnologyConceptsInnovation“Chasm”Products &ServicesBasicResearchApplied ResearchProcess DevelopmentPiloting/prototypingUp scalingCommercial ImplementationUniversitiesCompaniesScience & Tech ParksRegional Manufacturing Hubs & Industry
18Applied research and development Scaling UpProductionIndustry/CompaniesBIH(facilitate & catalyzeApplied research, influence public policyPilotUniversities&Research InstitutesLabBasic SciencesDevelopmentCommercialization
19STP–SEZ and the NSI Investments Venture Capital Banks ServicesVenture CapitalEquityBanksSEZ-STP (Sector/Cluster Companies)Technology Transfer OfficeLoansIndustry(manufacturing)Start UpsUniversitiesResearch InstitutesInnovation FundGrantNational Research FundBasic researchApplied researchProduct developmentCommercializationProduction