Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC EAST/SOUTHERN AFRICA Presentation to the Embassy of Finland June 10 th, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC EAST/SOUTHERN AFRICA Presentation to the Embassy of Finland June 10 th, 2014
Some history TRAFFIC was established in the UK in1976 by IUCN’s Species Survival Commission to monitor illegal wildlife trade. TRAFFIC originally stood for TRADE RECORDS ANALYSIS OF FLORA AND FAUNA IN COMMERCE (today, only TRAFFIC is used) In the mid 1990s it became the joint wildlife trade monitoring programme of IUCN and WWF TRAFFIC has over offices in the Americas, throughout Europe, Africa, East and Southeast Asia, and Australia with approximately 120 staff dedicated to working only on the trade in wild animals and plants It has MoUs with the World Customs Organization and the CITES Secretariat (TRAFFIC also manages the Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) on behalf of CITES)
TRAFFIC in Africa TRAFFIC has been working in Africa since the 1980s. There are two regional offices: East/Southern Africa hosted by IUCN in Pretoria, South Africa and a Central Africa office hosted by IUCN in Yaoundé, Cameroon The East/Southern Africa regional office has staff and consultants in South Africa (Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Pretoria), Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. It also has an East Africa Programme office with a geographical remit from Eritrea to Mozambique The East Africa Programme office is currently based in Dar es Salaam where it is hosted by WWF Tanzania.
TRAFFIC in East Africa The EA office in TZ has 5 staff: one programme officer dedicated to working on illegal and unsustainable trade in timber; a finance/admin officer; two project assistants; and an East Africa Coordinator. A senior programme officer dedicated to addressing issues such as the illegal trade in large mammals, understanding trade dynamics, and strengthening wildlife law enforcement will join the team in the coming weeks. East Africa’s projects address TRAFFIC’s programmatic themes of Flagships; Timber; Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; Wild Animals for Meat and Medicine; Wild Animals for Pets and Fashion; and Marine Shanny Pelle, Finance/Admin Officer Jumapili Chenga, Programme Officer - timber trade focal point Allen Mgaza, Project Assistant Julie Thomson, East Africa Coordinator Majaliwa Chamuya, Project Assistant - Communications
FLAGSHIPS - some of the issues Elephant populations in East Africa plummeting due to demand of ivory in China The greater Selous ecosystem was estimated to hold over 70,000 elephants in 2007 (down from the first census in 1976 which estimated 109,000 elephants), but an aerial count in 2013 found only slightly more than 13,000 elephants, Rhino populations on verge of extinction in Tanzania due to poaching driven by demand in Viet Nam primarily and China secondarily the eastern black rhino ( Diceros bicornis michaeli ), the most endangered of the remaining three subspecies. Currently the only surviving wild populations of D. b. michaeli are in Kenya, (approximately 635 individuals in 16 areas), and northern Tanzania (approximately 70 individuals in three areas) since the start of 2014, 442 rhinos have been poached in South Africa and 123 suspected poachers arrested
Flagships continued Wildlife law enforcement personnel inadequately trained and equipment initially provided not maintained No central database of activities to improve coordination and synergies Sensitization of judiciary and strengthening of wildlife laws National (ie., Zanzibar) and regional cooperation (esp. MZ) lacking Environmental education curriculum nonexistent; training expensive Elvis, a 24 year old Tanzanian identifies one of the major problems in his country as the lack of opportunity for Tanzanians to obtain the education necessary to manage their own natural resources. He has undertaken a ride to Europe and back to raise awareness about the lack of educational opportunities and therefore lack of upward mobility afforded to Tanzanian citizens. He is also raising funds so that he and others can attend MWEKA.
FLAGSHIPS More innovative involvement of local communities Example from African People & Wildlife Fund: “…collaboration with the Maasai resulted in the invention of “Living Walls”… Those Living Walls are protecting over 25,000 head of livestock and have significantly reduced lion-livestock conflicts and the retaliatory killing of lions.” Example from PAMS Foundation: Poor relations between community members and protected area authorities as one of the problems leading to community participation in commercial poaching. The chilli fences have also created a business opportunity: After the first year the REP gave the villagers chilli seeds to grow. Now REP buys chilli peppers from them and set up a market so chillies can be sold as a cash crop.”
FLAGSHIPS Wildlife regulation training at airports and production of standard training materials for use in East Africa Sniffer dog trial Mombasa port and production of training materials Assessment of illegal wildlife trade in KE and TZ that includes mapping trade flows, key drivers, training needs, etc. Outreach to Chinese business communities in TZ, UG, and ET Raising awareness of IWT at Julius Nyerere Airport – model for airports in the region Initiated collaboration with Zanzibar’s Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources Economic values of elephants to national economies and local communities in Tanzania, with case studies in Botswana and Namibia Example of poster designed for WWF/TRAFFIC/Wildlife Division wildlife trade campaign in Tanzania
TIMBER - some issues Inadequate domestic and international timber trade controls (from false documentation, certification and logging permits, use of bribes, etc.) resulting in significant losses of government revenue – some examples: TRAFFIC Bridging the Gap (2005) suggested 77% timber trade (in ) was illegal for study area covering the Coast, Lindi and Mtwara regions; TRAFFIC Governance report (2007) stated 96% of timber trade illegal during mid 2004 for study area (above) and 90% loss in tax revenue (= USD55 million per year ); TNRF/EAWS study in 2012 identified USD10 million in lost revenues due to uncontrolled cross-border trade between KE and TZ TRAFFIC study in 2013 identified USD4.2 million in lost revenues from 3 southern Districts due to illegal and improper application of controls in the timber sector EIA (2013) reported 48% illegal logging for MZ IUCN Forest Programme reported that illegal logging in tropical countries (ie., Tanzania, Cameroon) from 80% - 90% According to UNODC, for East, Central and West Africa, the net profits from dealing and taxing unregulated, illicit or illegal charcoal combined is estimated at up to USD7.4 billion or 2.8 times greater than the street value of drugs in the region. The overall size of the illicit charcoal export from Somalia has been estimated at USD million per year.
TIMBER Domestic consumption of timber in Tanzania and Kenya and release of assessment report of trade between MZ/TZ Understanding the market in China Held 1 st and 2 nd Timber Trade Stakeholder Forum with plans to undertake in June 2015; first time Zanzibar was included Timber trade monitoring along Tanzania’s coast from Kenya to Mozambique under MMC Proposed: timber and wildlife trade flows from western TZ; data credibility – standardizing data collection methodology; exploration of a Timber Trade Information System (TTIS) Example from ETIS Capacity building of government checkpoint staff - learning to identify species of timber in trade 1 st Timber Trade Stakeholders’ Forum
MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Issue: the harvest of East African sandalwood is illegal but the domestic trade is legal and international trade is under CITES Appendix II Proposed: collaboration among KE, TZ and UG to understand and control the trade Confiscation of sandalwood in northern TZ showing unsustainable harvesting methods. Photo credit: Keith Roberts
WILD ANIMALS FOR MEAT AND MEDICINE Trade in pangolins for Traditional Chinese Medicine market Giraffe – domestic trade for meat and medicine
WILD ANIMALS FOR PETS AND FASHION Proposed strengthening control of illegal trade of cheetahs to the Middle East through capacity building of north African checkpoints Proposed improving quota setting and non-detriment findings of the CITES Scientific Authority on live animal trade, specifically reptiles and live birds
Mozambique near-shore shark harvest and trade The Problem Increasing, unregulated harvest of near-shore sharks in Mozambique, targeted primarily for their fins, poses a distinct threat to their population status, the broader ecosystem and the livelihoods and food security of coastal communities in Mozambique. Project Outcomes Key stakeholders in Mozambique are provided with comprehensive information on harvest and trade dynamics for sharks caught in at least five near-shore fisheries. Policies and management measures for shark harvest and trade in Mozambique have been developed by the government. There is improved capacity for the regulation of shark products in trade in Mozambique. MARINE
East African seafood trade flow analysis The Problem Many East African costal States are grappling with illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and its effects on the resources they are attempting to manage. The comparative analysis of trade and catch data is a cost efficient mechanism for generating information useful in tackling IUU fishing. Currently no governments in the region incorporate fisheries trade data analysis into their monitoring, control and surveillance systems. Project Outcomes National level capacity to analyse fisheries trade data and effectively monitor and regulate fisheries trade will be increased in at least two East African coastal States. Tools and guidelines on fisheries trade data analysis, fisheries trade governance and risk assessment are developed.
Future projects Sharks : Extension of shark trade project methodology to other East African and Western Indian Ocean costal States facing similar threats. Due to the fact that many species are migratory, there is real need for the development of Regional Plan of Action on sharks. High Value near-shore species : Extension of shark trade project methodology to other high value near-shore marine species such as sea cucumber and lobster. Sharks – CITES : Support to developing countries in the implementation (as of September 2014) of the CITES Appendix II listing of Oceanic Whitetip, Porbeagle and Hammerhead Sharks and Manta spp.