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Smart Water treatment Solutions New Low cost options for safe water at the Point of Use World Water Forum 6 Marseille 2012 Henk Holtslag

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Presentation on theme: "Smart Water treatment Solutions New Low cost options for safe water at the Point of Use World Water Forum 6 Marseille 2012 Henk Holtslag"— Presentation transcript:

1 Smart Water treatment Solutions New Low cost options for safe water at the Point of Use World Water Forum 6 Marseille 2012 Henk Holtslag

2 1 Volume < 20 l /day/pp 2 Distance > 500 meter 3 Quality - Turbidity,mud,.. - Microbial, bacteria, viruses,.. - Chemical, arsenic, fluor,.. * 84% in rural areas (UNICEF 2009) ** Failing piped systems, recontamination in transport, at the house (IFC /world bank report, 2009) 0.7 Bln people without a safe water source* 3 Bln do not have safe water from utilities ** Problems & challenges

3 More water? Harvest rainwater Aquifer recharge - Sand, contour dams - Vegetation, Vertiver - Tube recharge, $10/500m3 Rooftop harvesting - Wire cement tanks: $20/m3 - Plastic lined tank

4 Reduce distance? Repair existing pumps - 50% of piston pumps broken Upgrade hand dug wells - with a recharge, cover, low cost hand pump New water points - with pumps, low cost drilling Emas,Rota sludge, Baptist Jetting, $ 150 – 2000 /syst.

5 Safe drinking water? Treat water at Point of Use (PoU) - Re-contamination between source & use - 50% hospitalbeds due to unsafe water,.. - Safe water most cost-effective action to reduce poverty

6 Proposition To reduce water borne diseases it is more cost- effective to treat water at the Point of Use than at the source, via piped systems

7 7 Efficiency of measures against diarrhoea (source: SIE 2009)

8 Point of Use treatment 1 Point of Tap 2 Household Water Treatment and Safe storage (HWTS)

9 Point of Tap - Water kiosks - Chlorine dispensors A drop of chlorine at the tap point

10 Local Chlorine production WATASOL Users; over 0.5 Million Price; $0.3 - $ 1.0 Cost; $0.1 - $ Extremely low costs - Local business development - Re-use of bottles - Can be used as disinfectant - - Requires much training

11 Point of Use Treatment. HWTS Point of Use Treatment. HWTS Disinfectant/Flocculant Users; 1 mln.? Price; $0.1- $0.2 (sachet 20 ltr.) Cost; $5 - $ functions - Small - Easy transport in emergencies - Low investment/day - - High cost/year - Not easy in use

12 Twinoxide/ Aqua prove Users; 0,2 mln. Price ; $1 Cost; $2- $4 + - No taste, no smell - No health effects - “Prevents” malaria ? - - Twinoxide (liquid) has short shelve life (Aqua prove, with tablet, has a long shelve life)

13 Silverdyne Users; 9 mln. Price; $3 - $4 Cost; $1 - $3 + - Very effective - No taste & smell - No environmental effects - Ten years shelf life - Long lasting effect in storage - - Not widely known

14 Plation Users; 0.5 ? mln. Price; $20/unit/20ltr Cost; $4 - $6 + - Extremely simple - Functions one year - - High costs Safe storage

15 Silver tube, Clay bar Silver impregnated ceramic Users; 1000 Price; $1 - $5 Cost; $0.2 - $1 + - Simple - Low cost - Local production - - More tests needed

16 Biosand filters Users; 1-2 mln. Price; $20- $30 Cost; $1- $ liters/day - Local production - - Big, heavy to transport - Not an off-the-shelf product less attractive for shops - Needs additional disinfection

17 Candle Filters ( drip filters) Users; ? Mln. Price; $15 - $100 Cost; $ 2 - $ Includes storage - Easy to use - Widely used in Asia & S. America - - Most models low filter capacity - Most cheap models not reliable - High volume, high transport costs - Cost in Africa > $30

18 Candle filters Stefani (Brazil) Cost in Mozambique $30 - $100 Production 5 million candles/year

19 Nazava Filters Local assembly Low cost concept Imported filter element & local containers -Filter cap ltr /hr -Cost: US$

20 Pot filters Users; 5 – 10 mln. Price; $12 – $22 Cost; $ $ Local production - Easy to use - - Big, fragile (transport) - Less attractive for shops

21 Pureit As safe as boiled water Users; mln. Price; $35 Cost; $4 - $5 + - Attractive - Very effective, EPA std. - - Expensive for poor families - Only in India

22 Swach Users; 1-2 mln? Price; $20? Cost; $2 - $3 + - Attractive (Gadget) - Effective - - Only available in India

23 LifeStraw-Family Users; 6? Mln. Price; $25 - $ ? Cost; $ 2 - $ ? + - Attractive (Gadget) - Very effective, EPA std. - - High filling point, 2ltr. cap. - After ltr. complete new filter needed - Expensive for poor families

24 Siphon filter (Tulip ) Users; 1 mln. Price; $8 - $16 Cost; $1- $2 + - Small, easy transport ltr / element ltr / day - Reduction bact. 99,99% - - Relatively complicated in use - Requires additional storage container

25 No option is ‘the’ solution SODIS UV Combined Chemical (PUR) Chemicals Filtering Boiling PesticidesParasitesBacteriaVirusesHeavy Metals Turbidity

26

27 Of all options, filters most effective in reducing diarhoea & preferred by users

28 PoU Treatment can solve almost all water quality problems Clear but unsafe water from wells,.. + disinfection = safe water Dirty water from wells, rivers, pumps,. + a filter = safe water

29 Salt, Arsenicum,Pesticides, … ? Rainwater storage + a filter = safe water

30 Scaling up? Social marketing. Shift message from “Water = health” to Water = wealth”. Role NGOs, Governments. Large scale action; see Hystra study Supply chain. Increase no. of options so people have choices, support local private sector Payment options. For those who can not pay in one time. No gifts. Use subsidies for supply chains

31 Information ? “Marketing Safe Water Systems” Compares treatment options Explains what went wrong with upscaling Suggestions for massive upscaling HWTs A must read!!! Author: Urs Heierli

32 Booklet Smart Disinfection Solutions

33 Wikipedia for water and sanitation

34 Safe water for all, yes we can


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