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Chapter 24 Short Answer Exam Review

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1 Chapter 24 Short Answer Exam Review

2 The author of the Theory of Relativity

3 Einstein

4 Just prior to WW1, the ________ _________ community was marked by a sense of confusion and anxiety leading to feelings of imminent catastrophe.

5 European Intellectual Community

6 16th Century monk who taught that salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin.

7 Martin Luther

8 As the nineteenth century evolved, what happened to Newton’s rational theory of the mechanical conception of the universe posited in the physics?

9 Invalidated it

10 Which two persons’ experimental work with radium and radiation , based on the inquiry into the disintegrative processes within atoms became a central theme in the new physics?

11 Marie and Pierre Curie

12 The quantum theory of energy developed by _____ ______ raised fundamental questions about questions about the subatomic realm of the atom and the basic building blocks of the material world.

13 Max Planck

14 What challenged the traditional notions of causality, time, and space as it pertained to physics?

15 Quantum Theory of Energy (Physics)

16 The revolution in understanding the nature, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases was largely due to the discoveries of

17 Edward Anthony Jenner Joseph Lister (635) Louis Pasteur (633)

18 Which late nineteenth/early twentieth century philosopher believed that Christianity was a scourge and had deeply undermined the creative power of western civilization?

19 Friedrich Nietzsche

20 Of philosophers Nietzsche, Sorel, and Bergson, which advocated violence, if necessary, as a means of achieving socialism?

21 Georges Sorel

22 Who determined that by one's unconscious and by inner drives of which people were generally unaware?

23 Sigmund Freud

24 With reference to the previous question, which three entities did this person say controlled our daily lives?

25 Id ego superego

26 Of the id, ego, and superego which component of personality is composed of our internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents and from society. It works to suppress the urges of the id and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather than realistically.

27 Superego

28 A 19th-century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the humanoids are the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions and in accord with which a position of laissez-faire is advocated.

29 Social Darwinism

30 Who was the British philosopher who attempted to apply the theory of evolution to philosophy and ethics in his series Synthetic Philosophy ( )?

31 Herbert Spencer

32 How was Social Darwinism used to promote nationalism?

33 Scientific Racism (pitted one race as being superior all others being inferior due racial flaws) The most prominent form of such views stressed competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism (a good thing): but it also connected to the ideas of eugenics (breeding of a superior race), scientific racism (as per you textbook) and later on fuel for fascism and Nazism (a bad thing).

34 Who were the Aryans according to Houston Stewart Chamberlain?

35 The real creators of Western Culture

36 Who would have stated the following: “All human societies were organisms evolving through time from struggle with their environment?

37 Hubert Spencer

38 Which institution saw new migrants to cities without connections to civic churches, advocates of more scientific inquiry, and Marxist political movements of the nineteenth century as an attack on its existence?

39 The Church

40 Naturalism is more pessimistic

41 The doctrine or belief that this is the worst of all possible worlds and that all things ultimately tend toward evil.

42 Pessimism

43 A French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'Accuse.

44 Emile Zola

45 Which of the following; Freud, Zola, or Nietzsche, stated, “I have simply done on living bodies the work of analysis which surgeons perform on corpses.”

46 Emile Zola

47 In 1898, who wrote an open letter, published in the Paris newspaper L'Aurore, that attacked French officials for their persecution of French artillery officer Alfred Dreyfus, whose wrongful sentence for treason became known as the Dreyfus Affair?

48 Emile Zola

49 Associate the following writers with their “ism”: Victor Hugo, Charles Dickens, Albert Camus, and Emile Zola.

50 Victor Hugo - Romanticism Charles Dickens – Realism Albert Camus - Liberalism Emile Zola - Naturalism

51 Which 19th Century French Catholic scholar question the historical accuracy of the Bible and denied the divinity of Jesus?

52 Ernst Renan

53 In his encyclical De Rerum Novarum (1891), ____ _____ ____ asserted that much of in socialism was Christian in principle.

54 Pope Leo XIII

55 Which Pope caused the Catholic Church to take a rigid stand against modern ideas including religious toleration, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press?

56 Pope Pius IX

57 “The taking an real object or scene and changing it into something that any view of the piece can associate them-self in. It is more than just distorting the imagery. It is the ability to change something to a unreal but not surreal.” Is this surrealism, abstract realism, baroque, modernism, and impressionism?

58 Abstract Realism

59 What was Pissarro best known for?

60 Impressionism

61 Folk music, nationalist themes, and attraction to the exotic and primitive – Describe which “ism” of music:

62 Modernism No less than artists and writers, composers and musicians were fascinated by the possibilities of new, previously unheard of modes of expression, new techniques, and new aesthetic as well as cultural effects.

63 Which “ism” of style is associated with Igor Stravinsky's Rite of Spring?

64 Modernism

65 What was the first professional occupation to be opened up to women?

66 Teaching (Educator)

67 Which of the following - Clara Burton, Florence Nightingale, Amalie Sieveking, and Emmeline Pankhurst – was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement which helped women win the right to vote. The others were leader in which field?

68 Emmeline Pankhurst Nursing

69 Who pioneered the field of nursing for women?

70 Florence Nightingale

71 Why and in what arena did Emile Zola say the following: “I accuse the war office of having led a vile campaign in the press in order to misdirect public opinion and cover up its sins.”“I accuse the first court-martial of having violated all human rights in condemning a prisoner on testimony kept secret from him.”

72 The Trial of the wrongfully accused Alfred Dreyfus

73 To advance the cause of women’s suffrage, the Women’s Social and Political Union founded by _____ _____ and her daughters took radical, public, and well publicized approach to the movement, employing different media and provaocative public actions, like pelting male politicians with egg, to demand the vote for women

74 Emmeline Pankhurst

75 Which group of Europeans were emancipated in most countries, but still faced restrictions?

76 Jews

77 In general, by the late nineteenth century, where (What part of Europe
In general, by the late nineteenth century, where (What part of Europe?) did the worst treatment of the Jews occur?

78 Eastern Europe

79 Which female exemplified the "new woman" of modern times by successfully completing a professional degree and worked in early childhood development?

80 Maria Montessori

81 _____ _______, the leader of the Zionist movement, advocate for the dispensation of the European Jews by advocating the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.

82 Theodor Herzl

83 An organized, often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority group, especially one conducted against Jews is called a

84 Pogrom

85 Who was the great English political liberal of the early twentieth century?

86 David Lloyd George

87 Which British Liberal fought for the passage of the National Insurance Act of 1911 providing sickness and unemployment benefits to workers with state aid?

88 David Lloyd George

89 Which modern European society at the turn of the twentieth century found itself with a proliferation of ultra-nationalist right wing political pressure groups with anti-Semitic, racist, and imperialist beliefs?

90 Germany

91 ____ _______ _________ considered that not only the German groups in neighboring countries, such as Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Switzerland, and Alsace, but even distant German-speaking groups such as Volga Germans, Baltic Germans, Transylvanian Germans, and German-Americans were linked by a blood tie to their fatherland.

92 Pan-German League

93 A policy of rulership employed by Giolitti where by the transformation of old political parties into new power blocks (coalitions) through the calculated use of political patronage and out right bribery.

94 transformiso

95 A British socialist movement, whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary, means.  

96 Fabian Socialists 

97 Russia’s disastrous defeat in the Russo-Japanese were indirectly led to the ________ __ _____  

98 Revolution of 1905 

99 The argument of “The White Man’s Burden”, Social Darwinism, and the need for military bases abroad were all argument for ____________.  

100 Imperialism  

101 Which of the following areas was not part of the British empire in the Far East? India, Australia, New Zealand, Mozambique  

102 Mozambique  

103 The Boer War was fought by the British in

104 South Africa  

105 The main cause for the Boer war was the difference in ______ _____between the British and the Boers. 

106 political ideologies

107 Which country exercised a sphere of influence in the mid-Pacific islands?

108 The United States

109 This uprising took place in response to foreign “ spheres of influence” in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism.

110 Boxer Rebellion

111 What created a political system, democratic in form, but rigidly authoritarian in practice; sent many Japanese abroad to be educated in the ways of the West and adopted many western reforms in political and military organization in Japan?

112 Meiji Restoration

113 The isolation of France through a series of military alliances was cornerstone of the

114 Bismarckian System

115 Which countries were included the Triple Alliance?

116 Germany, Italy, Austria

117 Which countries were included in the Triple Entente?

118 Russia, Great Britain, France

119 ___ ______ ______ was created in 1907 to counterbalance the growing strength of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy and their empires.

120 The Triple Entente

121 What was the result of the First Moroccan Crisis?

122 Uniting France and Britain in a new alliance.

123 Who were the primary antagonists in the Balkans region?

124 Serbs and Austrians

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