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Kim Casali, 1960s & 70s.  starter activity In the light of your reading can you explain this cartoon. How accurate do you think the cartoonist really.

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Presentation on theme: "Kim Casali, 1960s & 70s.  starter activity In the light of your reading can you explain this cartoon. How accurate do you think the cartoonist really."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kim Casali, 1960s & 70s

2  starter activity In the light of your reading can you explain this cartoon. How accurate do you think the cartoonist really is?

3 Did talks between USA & USSR achieve anything? To identify & evaluate the achievements and failures of the SALT talks & Helsinki Accords  Aims

4  Your task Read p and under these headings take notes on the achievements and limitations of each treaty: Read p and under these headings take notes on the achievements and limitations of each treaty: SALT I (1972) SALT I (1972) SALT II (1979) SALT II (1979) Helsinki Accords (1975) Helsinki Accords (1975) Who do you think gained most from these treaties? Who do you think gained most from these treaties?

5 Read source p.147 and watch the film clip about this band… What do tell us about the effectiveness of Détente?

6  Your task Read p. 148 and list evidence that Détente in Europe achieved some success. Read p. 148 and list evidence that Détente in Europe achieved some success. Read ‘An assessment of Détente’ on p.148 and list evidence to suggest it failed Read ‘An assessment of Détente’ on p.148 and list evidence to suggest it failed Read ‘Interpretations of Détente’ on p.149 and note down the views of: Read ‘Interpretations of Détente’ on p.149 and note down the views of: Left-wing & centre historians Left-wing & centre historians Post-revisionists Post-revisionists Right-wing historians & politicians Right-wing historians & politicians

7 European success Abandoned Hallstein Doctrine & moved towards Brandt’s Ostpolitik Abandoned Hallstein Doctrine & moved towards Brandt’s Ostpolitik Increased pragmatism – recognition of reality rather than abandoning principle of reunificiation Increased pragmatism – recognition of reality rather than abandoning principle of reunificiation Treaties with USSR & Poland – recognising Oder- Niesse Line Treaties with USSR & Poland – recognising Oder- Niesse Line Legal access to W Berlin agreed (1971) Legal access to W Berlin agreed (1971) Basic Treaty (1972) – accepting division of East & West Germany but also estd. trade links Basic Treaty (1972) – accepting division of East & West Germany but also estd. trade links

8 Failures of Détente Armaments increased Armaments increased Many terms ignored, e.g. Helsinki Accord or not ratified, e.g. SALT II Many terms ignored, e.g. Helsinki Accord or not ratified, e.g. SALT II Tensions elsewhere remained high, e.g. Sino- Soviet relations Tensions elsewhere remained high, e.g. Sino- Soviet relations Conflict continued, e.g. Iran, Afghanistan & Angola Conflict continued, e.g. Iran, Afghanistan & Angola

9 Interpretations Left-wing historians – positive step towards stabilising relations, characterised work of historians until mid 1970s and biographers of Nixon & Kissinger Left-wing historians – positive step towards stabilising relations, characterised work of historians until mid 1970s and biographers of Nixon & Kissinger Post-revisionist – beneficial for both superpowers, e.g. Craig & George, ‘Force & Statecraft’ Post-revisionist – beneficial for both superpowers, e.g. Craig & George, ‘Force & Statecraft’ Right-wing commentators – Détente seen as sign of US weakness, hard-line approach of Reagan forced Soviets to negotiate and brought down Communism Right-wing commentators – Détente seen as sign of US weakness, hard-line approach of Reagan forced Soviets to negotiate and brought down Communism

10 Plenary Plenary What did Salt & Helsinki Achieve? What did Salt & Helsinki Achieve? Why were they criticised by right-wing US commentators? Why were they criticised by right-wing US commentators? Give examples of positive outcomes from Détente Give examples of positive outcomes from Détente How do historians of Détente differ in their views? How do historians of Détente differ in their views?

11  Homework Study sources G-I on p.150 and answer Qs 2-4 on p.150 Study sources G-I on p.150 and answer Qs 2-4 on p.150 Improving US and USSR relations

12 Q2: G & H, positive achievements G:move away from bipolarity; more complex approach to international relations; alternative power centres, e.g. China, Germany; growth of nuclear stockpiles increased reluctance to use them due to the consequences G:move away from bipolarity; more complex approach to international relations; alternative power centres, e.g. China, Germany; growth of nuclear stockpiles increased reluctance to use them due to the consequences H: relations became less volatile than earlier periods – a major achievement because given the weapons both possessed relations could have been much tenser; greater stability in the post-145 geopolitical settlement; rules estd. for conduct of Cold War H: relations became less volatile than earlier periods – a major achievement because given the weapons both possessed relations could have been much tenser; greater stability in the post-145 geopolitical settlement; rules estd. for conduct of Cold War

13 Q3: Détente fragile system Soviet expansion continued, e.g. into African countries such as Angola & Mozambique following collapse of Portuguese imperialism; Soviets exploited political instabilities around the world, e.g. Saigon which could have antagonised the US; were the Soviets genuinely interested in promoting peaceful relations? Soviet expansion continued, e.g. into African countries such as Angola & Mozambique following collapse of Portuguese imperialism; Soviets exploited political instabilities around the world, e.g. Saigon which could have antagonised the US; were the Soviets genuinely interested in promoting peaceful relations?

14 Q4: weakness for US USSR remained committed to worldwide communism; USSR could exploit weaknesses in US foreign policy, e.g failure in Vietnam War; new sphere of Soviet influence was slowly emerging in Africa USSR remained committed to worldwide communism; USSR could exploit weaknesses in US foreign policy, e.g failure in Vietnam War; new sphere of Soviet influence was slowly emerging in Africa

15  Extension task Read Gaddis, on Détente & the Helsinki Accords and Isaacs What is the verdict of these two authors on Détente? Read Gaddis, on Détente & the Helsinki Accords and Isaacs What is the verdict of these two authors on Détente? Ford & Brezhnev

16  Extension task II Pick a card from a hat. This will tell you whether you are a left-wing liberal historian or a right- wing neo-conservative. Produce a short public information broadcast highlighting either the strengths of Détente or reasons for abandoning it. Your film can be in the format of a documentary or a studio interview with experts on the subject. Use p.150 to help you. Pick a card from a hat. This will tell you whether you are a left-wing liberal historian or a right- wing neo-conservative. Produce a short public information broadcast highlighting either the strengths of Détente or reasons for abandoning it. Your film can be in the format of a documentary or a studio interview with experts on the subject. Use p.150 to help you.


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