Presentation on theme: "Mozambique: a Portuguese Example. Portugal c. 1950 Portugal was itself poor and underdeveloped; 40% of the population was illiterate, the result of over."— Presentation transcript:
Mozambique: a Portuguese Example
Portugal c Portugal was itself poor and underdeveloped; 40% of the population was illiterate, the result of over twenty years of fascist dictatorship. The regime could not afford to be flexible, nor did it have the power to force compromise from African nationalists.
Fascism and the Church The regime had a Nazi-like Youth movement, to which the Church was closely allied through the State.
Portugal c Portuguese policy directly against grain of decolonization movements everywhere: - colonial policies were intensified - large emigration movement was encouraged - settlers provided with land through a programme ‘land alienation’ (as in East Africa) - mulattoes, assimilados lost both social and economic position vis-à-vis new settlers - new ‘settler regime’ created complete with racist, repressive policies
Forced Labour Forced labour continued to be the base of the Settler economy under the new emigration of the 1950s. Not until the early 1970s was this system reformed (see below).
Reborn, Renewed Racism This picture from the 1960s could well have been taken 30 or even 40 years earlier!
Beginnings of the Struggle - Resistance to be expected - Between , armed struggle taken up in all three colonies
Mozambique and FRELIMO -in Mozambique the liberation forces had the support of Tanzania and lacked the meddling interference of the US (as in the Congo) -Leader Eduardo Mondelane succeeded in drawing different groups and ethnicities together with mildly socialist regime; ironically also insisted on use of Portugues as lingua franca that could unite across linguistic groups - as in Algeria, South Africa colonial power attempted to infiltrate liberation groups - in 1969 Mondelano was assasinated
Mozambique and FRELIMO - FRELIMO almost split between right wing that was in favour of working with the Portuguese, seeking more opportunities and a left wing under Samora Machel: latter emerged as leader - strength was principally in the south among heavy rural populations - taking of Tete province in the north was major victory, leading to crossing the Zambesi - this allowed for frequent attacks on the Beira railroad that led to Rhodesia and was also used to import goods for the Cabora Bassa Dam
Mozambique and FRELIMO - Cabora Bassa Dam was a major project funded by South Africa and various European countries - its aim was to provide electricity to the Rand in South Africa: it had a lot of international significance - The dam was both an employer of many Africans and a target symbolic (and real) of FRELIMO’s struggle - FRELIMO was largely effective
Discrimination at Work Cabora Bassa Dam: workers in the canteen. Differences between African service (top) and‘Whites’ (below)evidence that new racism was taking hold. White workers were paid up to 6X as much.
FRELIMOs Struggle (1963) This was a battle against Colonialism, not ‘whites’.
Transport a Problem Supplies all had to be carried overland; it took weeks to transport needed goods to the Front lines.
Preparing Ambush (MPLA)
The Beira Railroad: targeted FRELIMO was quite successful in bombing and derailing trains on the Beira railroad, affecting among other things delivery of supplies to the Cabora Bassa Dam.
Derailing the Dam
Social Change with Liberation In Liberated areas, collective agricultural projects were undertaken both for subsistence and export.
Education Central to Liberation In all the liberated territories, schools were established to educate those cheated by colonialism.
Education is Central
Education is Central (cont) The Liberation Armies developed their own textbooks.
Hospitals were a part of War (FRELIMO)
Impact on Portugal - Portugal being heavily strained with costs of war – by the early 1970s, almost half the national budget was being spent on the wars in Africa - no development was taking place in Portugal men were migrating to France in search of work; - other men had to be drafted and desertions were a major problem; - many were appalled by the reality of war in Africa – others contributed to its inhumanity
Portuguese Soldiers: Africa is Hell
Portuguese Tactics… Portuguese faced other problems: - limited supplies - difficulties with transport But rural population tended to support Liberation armies: - kept transport routes open -“Liberated Zones” with schools, agricultural projects hospitals were desirable places to be
Portuguese Tactics… Portuguese used carrot and stick approach: - tried to convince people of the opportunities to be gained by supporting them - also threatened people supported (or might support) liberation forces - most importantly in Mozambique (and Angola) they established militarily guarded ‘resettlement camps’ which forcibly housed millions
Portuguese Tactics… The ‘winning hearts and minds’ approach, as well as offering ‘opportunities’. It sometimes worked.
Portuguese Threats Advising the local population NOT to let ‘the enemy’ cross the river. Anyone on the river may be the enemy. Therefore, DO NOT CROSS THE RIVER OR YOU WILL BE KILLED!
Resettlement Camps Answer to guerilla war tactics: ‘resettlement’ camps
Impact War on Portugal Some government reforms attempted: - reduce forced labour (cited by ILO in 1972 for contravening Geneva Accord against use of forced labour) - abolished the status of assimilado - opened up Angola to non-Portuguese investment which in turn gave the West a stake in Portuguese victory Not Enough!
Foreign Aid and Support This plane has been given by the US (you can still see “US Air Force on the nose); note the Portuguese symbol on the Tail: the so-called “Cross of Christ”
Impact War on Portugal Armed Forces Movement influenced by ideas of African Liberation Movements, seized power in coup 1974: - Sympathizers with decolonization put in offices with influence FRELIMO was handed government of Mozambique
Impact War on Portugal While many other countries had solved the issues arising from Colonialism through the process of decolonization - (even, ultimately, the French in Algeria) - for Portugal, its wars in Africa actually led to the collapse of the state itself.
Impact War on Mozambique After Soviet-backed FRELIMO gained control Mozambique, enjoyed only two years of ‘semi’ peace ( ) - rebel group Renamo (Resistëncia Nacional Moçambicana) formed by white Rhodesian officers seeking to keep Mozambique from supporting black guerrillas trying to overthrow white Smith government in Rhodesia - Renamo fought FRELIMO government until peace agreement signed in 1992.