Presentation on theme: "POST-CLASSICAL TRADING CITIES AND ALLIANCES"— Presentation transcript:
1 POST-CLASSICAL TRADING CITIES AND ALLIANCES THE SWAHILI CITIES OF EAST AFRICA & THE HANSEATIC LEAGUE OF EUROPE
2 THEMES Five Themes of Geography A.P. Themes A.P. Skills Location MovementRegionsA.P. ThemesInteractions and InterconnectionsWarTradeExchangesSocialUrban Trading SocietiesSyncretismA.P. SkillsCompare and ContrastChange and Continuities
3 WHEN TO TEACH UNIT Snapshots: Western Europe, East Africa Compared Pre-ReadingStudents should have read chaptersPost-Classical Western EuropePost-Classical East AfricaPost-Classical CrusadesStudents should understandDar es-Islam as a regionPost-Classical Urban culturesPost-Classical Trade and commerceRegional Geographies ofNorthern EuropeIndian OceanCritical SkillsDocument AnalysisFree Response Essay Writing: DBQ or C/C
4 LOCATIONS COMPARED The Baltic and North Seas Eastern Indian Ocean Scandinavia including FinlandPoland and Baltic StatesRussia: Novgorod and PskovNorthern GermanyEastern Indian OceanHorn of Africa – SomaliaEast Africa –Kenya, TanzaniaSouth Africa – MozambiqueIslands of Zanzibar, ComorosCommon ElementCitiesUrban CulturesMerchantsTrade
5 COMPARATIVE TECHNOLOGY The CogCentral to the success of the Hanseatic League was the cog. Although the Norse had elegant and seaworthy vessels, they had too small a carrying capacity to satisfy the Hanseatic merchants. What emerged to fill this need was the cog, a simple, rugged, double ended, clinker built ship with a single mast amidships and setting a single square sail on a yard.The DhowA dhow is a traditional Arab sailing vessel with one or more lateen sail. It was (is) primarily used along the coasts of the Arabia, India, and East Africa. A larger dhow may have a crew of approximately thirty while smaller dhows have crews typically ranging around twelve. For navigation, dhow sailors have used the kamal. This device determines latitude by finding the angle of Polaris above the horizon.
6 EARLY EAST AFRICAPolynesian immigrants settle parts, introduce bananasEgyptians and SabaeansEgypt referred to the area as PuntDocumentary evidence of trade between Egypt, PuntHatshepshut’s expedition to the area is quite famousProducts were spices, gold, ivory, animals, slavesIndigenous Semitics Civilization in Southern YemenCalled Sabaeans: created dams, terraced agricultureCities connected by trade to SW AsiaSpecialize in gold, frankincense, myrrhAxum-EthiopiaSemitic Sabaeans settle along Ethiopian coasts, highlandsCivilization arose in Axum: records, coinage, monumentsGreat power mentioned in Greek, Roman, Persian recordsControlled Bab-el Mandeb straits3rd Century conversion to Monophysite Christianity (Coptic)In decline after rise of Islam in Red Sea, Arabian Sea
7 MOVEMENT IN AFRICA Romans and Greek Three Movements Converge Both knew of region: Greeks called it Periplus, Romans called area AzaniaGreek, Roman, and Persian coins of 3rd century CE found in areaThree Movements ConvergeBantu Migration Down East African CoastArabic Merchants Along East African CoastPolynesians of Indian OceanBantu MigrationIntroduces cattle, iron, slash-burn agricultureBantu exploit resources of gold, ivory, copperBantu’s begin to cultivate yams, bananasSettlements coast, natural harbors, islands, riversMuslim Arab merchantsArabs Muslims trade for slaves, gold, ivoryLink East Africa to wider Indian Ocean, MuslimsArab merchants take Bantu wivesMixed families link interior Bantu, coastal Arabs
8 SWAHILI COASTAL TRADE Trade Winds Imports and Exports Monsoon winds dictate all movementNovember to April: Asians can arriveApril to October: Swahili go to IndiaImports and ExportsIvory, gold were key exports for East AfricaFinished goods were imported especially cloth, blue dyesSlaves increased in importance after 17th century plantationsCosmas Indicopleustes, Greek merchant, 6th century CE"They take with them to the mining district oxen, lumps of slate, and iron, and when they reach its neighborhood they make a halt at a certain spot and form an encampment, which they fence round with a great hedge of thorn. Within this they live, and having slaughtered the oxen, cut them in pieces, and lay the pieces on the top of the thorns, along with the lumps of salt and the iron. Then come the natives bringing gold in nuggets like peas, called tancharas, and lay one or two or more of these upon what pleases them - the pieces of flesh or the salt or the iron, and then they retire to some distance off. Then the owner of the meat approaches and if he is satisfied he takes the gold away, and upon seeing this its owner comes and takes the flesh or the salt or the iron.“
9 PRIMARY SOURCESThe Periplus of the Erithraean Sea, a Greek Sailors’ Guide from Alexandria, Egypt, c. 100 CE"Two days' sail beyond the island lies the last mainland market town of Azania, which is called Rhapta, a name derived from the small sewn boats the people use. Here there is much ivory and tortoiseshell. Men of the greatest stature, who are pirates, inhabit the whole coast and at each place have set up chiefs.“From Compendium of Knowledge by the Chinese Confucian scholar, Tuan Ch'eng-shih, 8th century CE"From of old this country has not been subject to any foreign power. In fighting they use elephant's tusks, ribs and wild cattle's horns as spears, and they have corselets and bows and arrows. They have twenty myriads of foot-soldiers. The Arabs are continually making raids on them.“
10 EL ZANJ: THE SWAHILI Swahili is actually a language Comes from Arabic “Sahel swahili”Means dwellers of the coastBantu speakers borrowed loan words from ArabicCame to symbolize a culture along East AfricaBantu arrived in 1st millennium CESettled coastsMuslims, Indians discovered wealth of area8th Century CESettlement Shirazi Arabs from the Persian GulfSmall settlements of Sindi IndiansEl Zanj: Land of the BlacksCoastal areas come under the control of Arab MuslimsMuslims controlled coast from cities along strategic harborsNorthern Swahili: Mogadishu, Pate, Zanzibar, Malindi, KilwaSouthern Swahili: Sofala pushed inland up to Zimbabwe, Mozambique
11 SWAHILI HISTORY Swahili City-States Trade and Economics Muslim and cosmopolitanMix of Bantu, Islamic, and Indian influencesAll politically independent of one anotherNever a Swahili empire or hegemony controlTrade and EconomicsCities like competitive companies, corporations vying for African tradeChief exports: ivory, sandalwood, ebony, and gold; later slavesTrade linked to both Arabia and India; even Chinese goods, influence reached areaSocial ConstructArabs, Persians were significant players in the growth of Swahili civilizationCities were run by a nobility that was African in originBelow nobility: commoners, resident foreigners made up a large part of the citizenryLarge group of artisans, weavers, craftsmenSlavery was actively practicedThe sixteenth centuryAdvent of Portuguese trade disrupted trade routes, made commercial centers obsoletePortuguese allowed native Africans no share in African tradeSet about conquering the Islamic city-states along the eastern coastThe late seventeenth centuryOman (in the south of Arabia) conquered the Portuguese cities along the coastEastern African coast controlled by Omani sultanate for another two hundred yearsCotton, cloves, plantation agriculture thrived and used slaves for laborEuropean Imperialism: Germany, Portugal, Italy, Britain split control of Swahili lands
12 SWAHILI CITIES Swahili Garden Cities Built around palaces, mosquesWalled CitiesMany markets, harborsWealthyBuilt homes within wallsEndowed mosques, schoolsWandering Muslims, Sufis create madrasas attached to mosquesClimate led to creation of gardensMuslims transplanted many different plants, crops to areaGaspar Correa, sailor and mercenary describing Vasco da Gama's arrival in Kilwa, 16th century"The city comes down to the shore, and is entirely surrounded by a wall and towers, within which there are maybe 12,000 inhabitants. The country all round is very luxurious with many trees and gardens of all sorts of vegetables, citrons, lemons, and the best sweet oranges that were ever seen… The streets of the city are very narrow, as the houses are very high, of three and four stories, and one can run along the tops of them upon the terraces… and in the port there were many ships. A moor ruled over this city, who did not possess more country than the city itself.“
14 GREAT ZIMBABWE Called Mwenemutapa dzimba dza mabwe = houses of stonedzimba woye = venerated houses, describes a chief's house or grave.dzimbahwe = court, home or grave of chiefBantu-speaking people in Southeastern AfricaSouth of Zambezi River, North of Limpopo RiverMigrated from East AfricaBrought iron smelting, agriculture, cattle-raising Importance of Gold and Red-Gold (Copper)Area rich in both medalsEasily mined and obtainedTraded downriver to the coastsGreat ZimbabweCentralized state around 1300 CEHuge fortification surrounded by stone wallsDominated the Zambezi river valleyInfluence of SofalaSwahili coastal town in modern MozambiqueDominated trade in the Mozambique ChannelBecame the conduit for Zimbabwean gold to Indian OceanSupplied Zimbabwe with Arab, Indian, Chinese goodsTrade Changes HistoryWealth led to centralization of Zimbabwean governmentOriginal ruler-priests replaced by military-economic kinshipIslam, Swahili culture made no impact on region
15 EARLY NORTHERN EUROPE The Amber Route of the Greeks Largest world deposits in Baltic (Prussia)Greeks spoke of route to MediterraneanKeltic peoples in area participated in tradeGermanic and Viking MigrationsGermansGoths moved from Gotland to mainlandDisplaced Balts, ScythiansSettled southern shores of BalticGermans traded with each other, Mediterranean regionArian missionaries active in area, convert many Germanic tribesViking AgeVikings were active traders, explorersViking settlements attracted merchants, marketsVikings establish trade routes throughout area
16 NEW STATES IN EUROPE Charlemagne and The Church Charlemagne subdues the SaxonsIncorporates areas into Frankish EmpireEstablishes aristocratic hierarchyEstablishes church hierarchyChurch sends in missionaries to the areaChristian bishops established seesSees build on existing settlementsConversions followMonasteries establishedOttonian kings establish Holy Roman EmpireChurch hierarchy facilitated rise of cities around cathedralsCathedrals, church had need for artisans, services leading to rise of marketplacesFew natural resources along coasts short of fish, salt, timber, pitch, tarCities developed large merchant classes, specialists outside feudal societyRise of Imperial Cities: aristocrats, kings began granting charters to German citiesCities began to exercise political control over own affairs: regulate city lifeGerman cities assist emperors in eastern push along Baltic; granted privileges
17 HISTORY OF THE HANSA Rise of Guilds (Hansa) in German cities Established contacts with other guilds in other townsSought sources of timber, pitch, tar, wax, resins, furs,Began to move rye, wheat, salt, fish, honeyRole of Visby (Gotland)Germans traded under flag of GotlandJourneyed throughout Baltic especially to NovgorodExtreme competition of merchants led to conflict, rulesGermans began to build German cities to control tradeForming of The HansaLubeck founded in 1159Controlled transshipment across JutlandGranted status as imperial cityBecame Queen of Baltic Hansa 1227Formed alliance with Hamburg in 1241Hamburg controlled trade in Northern Germany to west of Elbe, BalticAlready had system of alliances with German, Flemish, Dutch citiesHamburg and Lubeck cooperated in alliances, with other citiesFormal Diet and Treaty signed in 1356More than 100 cities participated although few formally joined Hanseatic DietEstablished kontors or factories in area; became trading enclavesExchanges goods of Baltic with cloth, linens, manufactured goods of England, NetherlandsMember states adopted uniform Lubeck law code: heavily commercial
18 HANSA SOCIETY Alliance State Structure Local State Structure Hansa DietTreaties, Wars, DiplomacyEconomic Regulations, CoinageMembershipUsed Law Code of Lubeck as common lawLocal State StructureImperial Cities owing allegiance to emperorCharter from emperor established rightsFiercely guarded rights against princes, bishopsTown Hall often imposing structureCouncils run citiesCity patricians run councilsPatricians were masters of guildsGuilds regulated neighborhoodsLabor Structures: Guilds, Monopoly, MercantilismRegulated all aspects of manufacture, tradeExtreme hierarchy with masters, apprentices, journeymenCooperate within cities and between citiesSet prices, limited competitionSocialSome guilds higher than othersSocialized within specific guildsMarriages usually within guildsSome guilds admitted women
19 PRIMARY SOURCESFrederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1188, one of the earliest references to the liberties of Lübeck is found in the charter wherein he mentions the rights given to that city by Henry, Duke of Saxony.. . . For these reasons, in order that they may come and go freely with their wares through the whole duchy of Saxony, free from hanse and thelony, except at Ertheneborch, where they pay five denarii for wagons.... The Ruthenians, the Gothlanders, the Northmen, and the other eastern peoples may come and go freely to the oft-mentioned city without payment of thelony or hanse....Waldemar the Victorious, King of Denmark, who controlled much of the Baltic lands by reason of his conquests, was able to grant privileges in southern Sweden, the center of the herring trade, to Lübeck, since Scania formed a part of the Danish dominions, 1288In ancient times King Waldemar granted to the city of Lübeck that its citizens could, and should, at the markets at Skanör and Falsterbo, sell their wares, retail and wholesale, and buy whatever might be found for sale there. Also that they elect there any advocate they choose to judge all offenses and faults except those of "hand and neck": and so this law has been faithfully observed throughout the past up to the present day except for bla and blot, and this is beyond the jurisdiction of the citizens, and of those who live by the law of the city. But everyone must give lawful thelony to the officials of the lord King: they can sell cloth by the cubit; they can, also, sell other things by weight, both besemer and punder and this for the reason that the said King granted that such liberties should be observed in their free markets.
20 INFLUENCE OF HANSA Cities Influence Weaknesses Started as independent orGained independence by power of the LeagueSuch independence remained limitedHansa cities owed allegiance to the EmperorNo intermediate tie to the local nobilityInfluenceEconomicNo trade moved in Baltic without their permissionStates participate in trans-oceanic movementsMilitary = Ships, Armed MerchantsEquipped to protect themselvesIntimidate reluctant members, larger statesWaged war against piratesWeaknessesHansa merchants, cities cliquishRise of nation states, modern cities threatened HansaEconomic crises of 14th century wounded HansaRise of Holland, Swedish Empire, Prussia destroyed Hansa
21 ALLIANCE WITH GERMAN ORDER German Order (Teutonic Knights)German hospitaler order found 1182 in Holy Land13th Century switched activities to Baltic1226: Launched Christianizing crusade against PrussiaEstablished military church state under imperial, papal jurisdictionWaged war against Poland, Lithuania, NovgorodLivonian BrotherhoodSub-branch of German Order assimilated into OrderConquered Latvia (Livonia), EstoniaFounded towns and encouraged immigrationRiga and Marienburg were centers of stateSocietyGerman monk/knights formed military eliteGerman nobles carved out large landed estates with serfsGerman towns, burghers graded rights, autonomyFree German peasants cleared land, planted cropsLocal Prussians “Germanicized” and granted equal rightsLocal Livonians, Ests, Lithuanians became serfsRelationship to HansaAll cities in area were members of HansaSettlers often came from HansaGerman order formed military alliance with HansaEconomic wealth flowed through Hansa
22 OTHER CITIES &ALLIANCES NetherlandsBruggeGhentMediterraneanVenice, Genoa and AmalfiBarcelonaAlexandriaSouthwest AsiaDamascusBaghdadChinaChang-anHangchowSoutheast AsiaCholan EmpireSrivijayan EmpireMalaccaCentral AsiaMervBukharaSamarkand
23 EXTENSIONS: TRADE DIASPORAS Definition: A trade diaspora is a dispersed ethnic community which exists in different geographic locations and specializes in trade. They are often religious minorities who are accorded certain protections by a state and perform many duties for the rulers of that state including diplomacy and long-distance trade.Influence: Ethnic and family bonds help maintain strong links of communication and trust, as well as maintaining a kind of "brand" identity in relation to local peoples. Most major trade entrepots allowed trading groups to rule themselves under their own headmen. But traders also got involved in local politics through marriage and official positions, thus overlapping with state sponsored trade. Trade diasporas often introduced new ideas, faiths, and technologies into existing regions while assisting the formation of new cultures and languages.GroupsVenetians and Genoese in MediterraneanSwahili merchants in East AfricaHansa German merchants in Northern EuropeJews in Mediterranean, SW Asia, EuropeMuslims in areas outside Muslim ruleArmenians in SW AsiaNestorians in Central AsiaFukien Chinese in South, East China SeaHausa people in the Sahel, West Africa
24 INTERESTING LINKS Old World Contacts This tutorial focuses on the travelers of Eurasian and African history between 330 BCE and 1500 CE. It introduces students to the agents of contact: the merchants, military men, missionaries, and others who journeyed far from their homelands. It examines the foreign items and ideas these people transported with them across the vast landscape and surrounding seas of three continents. This tutorial explores how cross-cultural contacts/exchanges affected the Old World's diverse cultural communities through time.