Presentation on theme: "60 Years Fighting Hunger… Personal Recollections Norman E. Borlaug."— Presentation transcript:
60 Years Fighting Hunger… Personal Recollections Norman E. Borlaug
Borlaug Farm and Boyhood School house Raised in a Norwegian community in northeast Iowa, on 100-acre mixed crop and livestock farm Attended this one-room school house for the first eight years.
Mexican Government-Rockefeller Foundation Multidisciplinary research focus to increase yields and production Train a multidisciplinary corps of young Mexican scientists Get research results to farmers as soon as possible RF staff to work themselves “out of a job” Cooperative Agricultural Program 1943-1960
Shuttle Breeding and Multi-location International Testing Produced the Broadly Adapted Mexican Wheat that Triggered the Green Revolution *Days getting longer *Days getting longer Days getting shorter Days getting shorter * Initial period after sowing 1,200 Km 29º 19º
Training Program FAO/Rockefeller/Mexican Government Training Program Started in late 1960 Young scientists from North Africa, Near- and Middle-East In-service training in all the disciplines Trainees took HYV semidwarf seed technology back home International multi-location yield nurseries
Wheat Seed Shipments to Asia 1965: 250 tons to Pakistan; 200 tons to India 200 tons to India 1966: 18,000 tons to India 1967: 42,000 tons to Pakistan; 21,000 tons to Turkey 21,000 tons to Turkey
Profiles in Courage Malik Khuda Baskh Bucha Minister of Agriculture, Pakistan C. Subramaniam Minister of Agriculture, India
Chinese Leadership He Kang Minister of Agriculture 1978-90 Chou En-Lai Prime Minister 1949-76 Deng-Xiaoping Paramount Leader 1978-89
Fertilizer NutrientCereal WheatRiceIrrigationUse TractorsProduction million hamillion t millions million t Fertilizer NutrientCereal WheatRiceIrrigationUse TractorsProduction million hamillion t millions million t Green Revolution: Changes in Factors of Production in Developing Countries of Asia M ha / % area Adoption of Modern varieties 19610 / 0%0 / 0%8720.2309 197014 / 20%15 / 20%106100.5463 198039 / 49%55 / 43%129292.0618 199060 / 70%85 / 65%158543.4858 200070 / 84%100 / 74%175704.8962 Source: FAOSTAT, July 2002 and author’s estimated on modern variety adoption, based on CIMMYT and IRRI data.
World Cereal* Production–Areas Saved Through Improved Technology, 1950-2000 CEREAL PRODUCTION 1950650million tonnes 20001,900million tonnes 1,80 0 1,40 0 1,00 0 600 195019601970198019902000 LAND SPARED 1.1 billion ha LAND USED 660 million ha Million hectares 200 * Uses milled rice equivalents Source: FAO Production Yearbooks and AGROSTAT
Agroforestry Hara Farms, Haryana Locally, 15,000 tons of timber logs a day are converted into ply, wood board, flush doors, etc, in 400 processing facilities over the last 15 years worth US$ 500 million a year Poplar, 50 t/ha/year, 10-year cycle Poplar, mangoes, wheat
High-Yield Agriculture & Forestry Will Help Protect African Wildlife
Africa is the Greatest Worry High population growth, even with AIDS 200 million hungry and malnourished people Declining soil fertility and little application improved technology Rural isolation—lack of roads and transport Poor education and health services
KmKm USA 20,987Guinea637 France 12,673Ghana494 Japan9,102Nigeria230 Zimbabwe1,586Mozambique141 South Africa1,402Tanzania114 Brazil1,064Uganda94 India1,004Ethiopia66 China803Congo, DR 59 Source: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2002 Kilometers of paved roads per million people in selected countries Lack of Infrastructure Is Killing Africa Killing Africa
Sasakawa- Global 2000 Program Zambia Mozambique Malawi Sudan Mali Guinea Active Concluded Nigeria Ethiopia Eritrea Uganda Tanzania Burkina Faso Ghana Togo Benin Started in 1986 At present covers 10 countries in eastern, central and western Africa.
SG 2000 Demonstration Plots Moderate amounts of Moderate amounts of fertilizer fertilizer Improved varieties Improved varieties Good stands Good stands Timely planting & Timely planting & weeding weeding
Sasakawa-Global 2000 Maize Demonstration Yields Ghana t/ha * Primarily using hybrids Nigeria* Mali/ Burkina Faso MozambiqueUgandaEthiopia*Malawi* 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Demontration Plots National Average
Opaque-2 gene—Purdue University discovery (1963) – high lysine – high tryptophan CIMMYT Conversion from soft to hard grain at CIMMYT (1970-78) Need to manage the opaque-2 gene in seed production Quality Protein Maize (QPM) A Non-GMO Forerunner
Controversy over Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) We’re all related—what does “Foreign DNA” really mean? Mother nature is also a biotechnologist ! BIOTECHNOLOGY AND FOOD
GMOs for 21st Century Insect and Disease Resistance NutritionalQuality AbioticStresses Herbicide Resistanc e Genetic Yield Potential
Bt Cotton 7 million ha around the world; 4 million small farmers Excellent control of boll worm Major reduction in insecticide use Substantial reductions in poisoning of farmers Significant increase in farmer profits
My “Biotechnology Dreams” Transfer rice’s immunity to the rusts (Puccinia spp.) to other cereals— wheat, maize, sorghum, barley, etc Transfer bread wheat’s proteins— gliadin and glutenin—for making superior dough for leavened bread to other cereals, especially rice and maize
Dark Clouds Gathering in World Wheat Economy Per capita productiondeclining since 1997 Internationalgermplasm exchange & testing declining New disease threatsemerging, e.g. stem rust
Soybean Rust Epidemic Two species; Asian type most aggressive Two species; Asian type most aggressive 2001—Only small area in South America infected 2003—Brazilian producers lost US$ 1.3 billion (lost yield and fungicides) 2004—Expected to affect most regions of South America 2005-06—Expected to reach North America Could cause US$ 4.5 billion in damage to U.S. soybean crop
Need to Restore Public Research Funding Green Revolution was the result of “public goods” research and investment Green Revolution was the result of “public goods” research and investment Biotechnology is primarily driven by the private sector Biotechnology is primarily driven by the private sector Maintaining a balance between public and Maintaining a balance between public and private research is essential and healthy private research is essential and healthy Public institutions focus on problems of the poor, help prepare future scientists, and help assure that the public interest is protected.
Agriculture and Peace Only 8% of countries with the lowest levels of hunger are mired in conflict 56% of countries with highest levels of hunger have civil conflict World military budgets in 2004 exceed US$ 900 billion annually (USA accounts for 56% of total) In 2000, international donor support to agriculture reached lowest level in history
CUTTING ADULT ILLITERACY Male 320 million Female 550 million TOTAL = 870 million people + 120 million primary school age children not in school
“You Cannot Build Peace on Empty Stomachs.” John Boyd Orr Nobel Peace Laureate First FAO Director General