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Up date on malaria vaccine Mark R. Withers, M.D., MPH, Director, WRP Kombewa Clinic Dr Walter Otieno MBChB, M. Med (Paeds), PhD Walter Reed Project-Centre.

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Presentation on theme: "Up date on malaria vaccine Mark R. Withers, M.D., MPH, Director, WRP Kombewa Clinic Dr Walter Otieno MBChB, M. Med (Paeds), PhD Walter Reed Project-Centre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Up date on malaria vaccine Mark R. Withers, M.D., MPH, Director, WRP Kombewa Clinic Dr Walter Otieno MBChB, M. Med (Paeds), PhD Walter Reed Project-Centre for Clinical Research Kenya Medical Research Institute

2 2 2 WRP-Kisumu

3 3 WRP-Kisumu: 4 main campuses  Kisumu HQ (“Kondele”) Administration Basic science: ELISA, PCR, flow cyt, RDTs New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital (PGH, Russian) –Children’s Hospital: 65 bed facility –Ward 8: dedicated in-out patient clinical research center  “Center of Excellence” for malaria microscopy  KEMRI “Center for Global Health” (Kisian town) Entomology malaria culture lab (monitors drug resistance patterns)  Kombewa Clinical Research Center Dedicated unit for large clinical trials

4 Why is malaria so important? Severe disease burden  million cases  CM (19% mortality)  1.42–5.66 million Anemia (13% mortality)  1.12–1.99 million RDS (18% mortality)  In Kombewa 62% of admissions in children due to malaria

5 Malaria Vaccine Development Ongoing for P. falciparum & P. vivax Theoretical Concepts: –Pregnant women protect newborns –Living in endemic areas develop immunity Malaria vaccines target the life cycle: –Pre-erythrocytic stage (sporozoite/hepatic) –Erythrocytic (asexual) stage –Sexual stage (transmission blocking)

6 TARGETS OF MALARIA VACCINES Pre-erythrocytic -Prevent infection -Reduce disease Blood-stage -Prevent disease Transmission blocking -Prevent transmission

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9 RTS,S Program History

10 Circumsporozoite protein  Most abundant protein covering entire sporozoite surface  Also expressed by malaria liver stages  Structure of CS protein: –Of all malaria species has a central domain with several amino acid repetitions –Amino acid sequence that composes each repetition is completely different for each plasmodium species

11 Circumsporozoite protein Structure of CS protein: –P. falciparum CS protein has limited variability therefore ideal for vaccines –P. vivax isolates display enormous variation- therefore not ideal for malaria vaccines –Amino acid repetitions targets for antibodies – N- & C-terminals contain epitopes recognized by CD4 & CD8 T cells –T cells specific for epitopes of CS protein confer protective immunity against liver stages

12 RTS,S Malaria Vaccine Development  Pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine  Composition of vaccine antigen:  Sequence of circumsporozoite protein  Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)  Adjuvants: ASO2 & ASO1  HBsAg is encoded with hepatitis B virus S protein gene, therefore protects against hepatitis B.

13 RTS,S Malaria Vaccine Development… Goal: develop 80% efficacious vaccine by 2025 with ≥4 year protection Characteristics of an ideal vaccine: –Safe –Effective –Affordable –Easy to deliver (EPI delivery system) –Will not interfere with other EPI vaccines

14 DEVELOPMENT OF THE RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE SPOROZOITE STAGE OF MALARIA PARASITE

15 DEVELOPMENT OF RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE R (REPEAT) + S (HEP-B) + T (T-CELL) RT S S SPOROZOITE HEP-B VIRUS

16 STRUCTURE OF THE CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN (CSP) CENTRAL REPEAT REGION N -TERMINALC -TERMINAL T-CELL EPITOPES

17 DEVELOPMENT OF RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE SPOROZOITES – ARE COATED WITH A SURFACE PROTEIN – CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN (CSP) A SEGMENT OF THE CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN CONTAINING REPEAT (R) AND T- CELL EPITOPES (T) IS FUSED TO HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (S) TO PRODUCE FUSION PROTEIN, RTS RTS IS COMBINED WITH A SECOND UNFUSED HEPATITIS B SEGMENT (S) TO FORM A STABLE RTS,S ANTIGEN

18 RESULTS OF RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE TRIALS Many trials have shown that RTS,S malaria vaccine is safe and immunogenic RTS,S efficacy trial in Mozambique – enrolled 2022 children aged 1-4 years 50% protection against severe malaria and severe anemia at 42 months post vaccination

19 RESULTS OF RTS,S MALARIA VACCINE TRIALS Many trials have shown that RTS,S malaria vaccine is safe and stimulates the immune system RTS,S efficacy trial in Mozambique – enrolled 2022 children aged 1-4 years 50% protection against severe malaria and severe anemia Malaria causes 1 million childhood deaths per year in Africa If this vaccine could reduce by half the cases of severe disease, we would be saving thousands of lives

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21 MAIN OBJECTIVES To investigate efficacy against clinical disease in children 5-17 months of age and Infants 6-12 weeks of age who receive the vaccine co-administered with EPI vaccines

22 ON GOING RTS,S VACCINE TRIAL A multi-center, Phase III trial of the candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S The trial has been designed to address key safety and efficacy information required before a vaccine can be licensed Across 11 sites in Africa with different levels of malaria transmission; Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Gabon, Ghana, Burkina Faso

23 How does RTS, S work? RTS,S induces the production of antibodies and T cells that are believed to diminish the malaria parasite’s ability to infect, develop, and survive in the human liver.

24 DESIGN OF THE TRIAL Vaccination at 0, 1, 2 monthsBoost at month 20 RTS,S Control Vaccine Control vaccineControl Vaccine Vaccination at 0, 1, 2 monthsBoost at month 20 RTS,S + EPI VACCINERTS,S RTS,S/AS01E + EPI VACCINECONTROL VACCINE CONTROL VACCINE + EPI VACCINECONTROL VACCINE Children 6-12 weeks of age Children 5-17 months of age

25 Thank you


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